Program Activities OF the National Science Foundation – 1959

1959 1

1959
The weather modification program is handled as part of the Atmos-
pheric Sciences research support program
It was established under. Public Law 85-5 10

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National Science Foundation

The weather modification program is handled as part of the Atmos- pheric Sciences research support program. It was established under. Public Law 85-5 10,  …

Program Activities OF the National Science Foundation

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NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Program Activities
OF the
National Science Foundation

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SUPPORT OF BASIC RESEARCH IN THE SCIENCES
Research Programs
In fiscal year 1959, support for basic research programs increased
two and a half times from approximately $25 million in 1958 to almost
$65 million. Responsibility for these Foundation programs lies with
the Division of Biological and Medical Sciences; the Division of Math-
ematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences; the Office of Social
Sciences; and, in the case of Antarctic research, with the Office of
Special International Programs. Projects described here in brief are to
be considered illustrative of the research being supported.
DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
Current Research Support
The Developmental Biology program supported projects on the
structure and physiology of reproductive organs; the physiology of repro-
ductive cells and fertilization; the mechanism of cell division; descrip-
tive embryology (plant and animal) ; plant morphogenesis (apical activ-
ity of roots and shoots, stem elongation, genesis and control of plant
form) ; chemistry of development (molecular basis of differentiation,
metabolic patterns during development, chemical induction of new
structures, and growth-stimulating substances) ; regeneration of lost
parts; development genetics (analysis of mutant gene effects in develop-
ment) ; tissue and organ culture (plant and animal) ; histology; cyto-
chemistry; fine structure of plant and animal tissues as revealed through
electron microscopy; gross and microscopic plant and animal anatomy;
and cell and tissue changes in old age.
The program in Environmental Biology provided grants for research
in plant and animal ecology; ecological physiology; paleoecology; vari-
ous projects in parasitology; biological oceanography; animal behavior
and other areas in which the major immediate emphasis concerned the
interrelationships between physical, biological, or sociological factors
and one or more organisms. In addition, support was given for the
purchase of specialized equipment, and for the design and development
of research equipment. The distribution of grants changed somewhat
in fiscal year 1959 with studies of the dynamics and structure of animal
populations, biological oceanography, life history investigations, and
680017–6
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projects involving quantitative community ecology comprising nearly
half of the grants made. The remainder were rather evenly distributed
in number in the general areas of plant and animal physiological ecology,
vegetation development, paleoecology, behavioral studies, productivity
analyses, limnology, various aspects of mycology and parasitology, and
microcliiatology.
The Genetic Biology program continued to support research directed
toward elucidating the nature-both structurally and chemically-of
genetic material, the laws governing the transmission of hereditary
traits from one generation to another, and the mechanisms by which
genetic material controls and determines the expression of hereditary
characters. Within this framework, grants made by the program sup
ported studies on cytogenetics; genetic fine structure and gene action;
investigations of evolutionary mechanisms; quantitative and popula-
tion genetics; and the genetics of specific traits. Experimental ap
proaches to the problems include cytogenetic and recombinational
analyses; breeding and selection experiments; and biophysical, bio-
chemical, and mathematical methods. Much of the genetic program
research was directed, at the molecular and cellular level, toward the
fundamental problems of defining the gene and elucidating the mecha-
nisms by which it acts, reduplicates, and mutates.
Since the inception of the Metabolic Biology program 2 years ago,
there has been considerable clarification of the content of the program;
grants made during the past year have dealt almost exclusively with
intermediary metabolism, and comprise an area concerned with meta-
bolic pathways and the interrelationships between enzyme reactions and
metabolic pools. The areas of investigation ranged from the mechanism
of protein synthesis and growth to specific metabolic factors which in-
hibit growth. Within this wide area were problems dealing with nearly
all metabolic processes of animal and plant tissues; mechanisms of cellu-
lar respiration ; and effects of hormones and inorganic ions on the
metabolism of plants and animals. A number of grants dealt with vari-
ous phases of photosynthesis and the mechanism of action of antibiotics.
Grants made by the Molecular Biology program encompassed studies
of the physical and chemical properties of substances of biological origin;
studies of RNA- and DNA-type macromolecules and of individual en-
zymes-isolation, purification, synthesis, reactivity, kinetics, and mecha-
nisms of action; and aspects of physical and quantitative biology, such as
molecular genetics, molecular morphology, virus structure and organiza-
tion, membrane and bioelectric phenomena, model systems, photobi-
ology, and bioenergetics. The research supported showed a continuing
and relatively large effort in investigating peptide and protein structure,
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synthesis, and reactivity. There has been a relatively large increase in
research dealing with virus structure and organization, primary light
and energy processes, membrane phenomena, and the organization and
replication of RNA and DNA. Fiscal year 1959 grants also showed a
marked increase in research on immunochemistry, molecular genetics,
molecular morphology, bioenergetics, and investigations into the active
sites on enzyme molecules. Nuclear and electron spin resonance tech-
nology is becoming more prominent in biological research; several grants
were made this year whereby instruments were purchased or adapted to
biological problems.
Grants awarded in the Psychobiology program continued to stress
physiological and experimental psychology, with some emphasis upon the
support of quantitative techniques as these develop from the fields of
mathematics and mathematical statistics. Support was provided for re-
search dealing with sensory processes, learning, problem-solving be-
havior, and the relationship between brain mechanisms and behavior.
During the past year an increasing number of grants were made for
the field study of animal behavior, reflecting the growing attention to
ethology. For example, research is being carried out dealing with the
behavior of the African mountain gorilla, the exact territorial pattern of
behavior of the kob (an African antelope), and the behavior of the
howler monkey in Panama- the only isolated and protected primate
population which has been studied systematically.
The Regulatory Biology program deals with interactions between or-
ganisms such as host-parasite interrelations, integrative responses to ex-
ternal stimuli, and with processes originating within plants and animals
which involve regulatory functions of organs and cells. Grants during
1959 were awarded for studies on synthetic media, various biological
rhythmic processes, hormone interrelationships, physiological adaptations
and specializations leading to evolutionary change, orientation to polar-
ized light and other external stimuli, interactions between the hype
thalamus and pituitary, control of red blood cell formation, immune
reactions, etc. About one-third of the grants support investigations on
plants. The remainder is about evenly divided between three categories
consisting of invertebrates, vertebrates other than mammals, and, finally,
various aspects of mammalian physiology.
The majority of research grants in the Systematic Biology program
were for the support of monographic or revisional studies on particular
groups of organisms or for systematic studies on specified faunas or floras.
Some were made in support of large-scale biological explorations in little-
known areas, such as the Sixth Archbold Expedition for Biological Ex-
ploration in New Guinea and the Plant Survey of the Guiana Region
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of South America. Other biologists were given support for collecting
in all continents, but with more limited objectives. Grants made by this
program are playing a vital role in the resurgence of systematic biology.
Although funds have been limited, grant support has contributed, among
other things, to the stability of going research programs and to the inno-
vation of many new ones throughout the broad spectrum of organisms,
both living and fossil; to the collection, preparation, and study of new
collections, often from the outermost comers of the globe; to the prepa-
ration and publication of the results of research, which in this field often
means monographic reports; and to the improvement of the large re-
search collections that must be classed as part of our national scientific
heritage.
Proposals of a general nature which cut across several program areas
continued to be handled by the Division through a special category.
This scheme has proven to be a useful one in that it insures that the di-
vision has the necessary flexibility to handle proposals which otherwise
do not fit into individual relatively circumscribed program areas. The
range of such proposals in fiscal year 1959 varied greatly and included,
for example, the support of several projects in biometrics; grants for the
support of stocks of important biological material; support of the Mo-
bile Desert Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology; and a
variety of research equipment grants for the use of groups of scientists
working in “coherent areas” of biological research.
Facilities for Research in the Biological and Medical Sciences
During the past year, the scope of facilities support remained limited
to specialized biological facilities. These are generally facilities which
are unique either in program or in location, not found in the usual uni-
versity or college departments covering the life sciences. Included are
such facilities as marine and field stations, systematic biology museums
which house collections of various life forms, and controlled-environ-
ment laboratories.
In fiscal year 1959, 17 grants totaling $3,269,800 were made. A
grant went to the University of Wisconsin for the construction of the
first “biotron”-a
laboratory for the study of both animal and plant
growth and development under controlled-environment conditions.
Climatic variables which will be controlled include temperature, humid-
ity, light intensity, and air movement. The biotron should approach
the status of a national or regional laboratory, with access being pro-
vided to competent investigators from other institutions. Support was
also provided for renovation of the phytotron (similar to the biotron,
but limited to plant studies) at the California Institute of Technology.
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Among the grants was one to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti-
tute which will permit greater use of oceanographic vessels for the
conduct of basic biological investigations; to the Jackson Memorial
Laboratory for the construction and equipping of an addition to the
main laboratory building; to Duke University and to the University of
Florida for construction of laboratory buildings at their marine labora-
tories.
Support was provided for rehabilitation of systematic biology facil-
ities at the Bishop Museum of Hawaii, which houses some of the leading
collections of Pacific area life forms; also for major repairs and modem-
ization of buildings at the Long Island Biological Laboratory, a major
center of genetics research.
To round out the picture of the kind of facilities supported during
1959, it might be well to mention a grant to the University of California
for support of basic research facilities at the White Mountain Research
Station where high-altitude physiological research is conducted, another
to the University of Chicago for the construction of a laboratory to
permit study of the comparative behavior of animals, and finally the
one to the University of Missouri for the construction of an animal
calorimeter for determining heat losses.
DIVISION OF MATHEMATICAL,
PHYSICAL, AND
ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Current Research Support
An expansion in basic research potential in astronomy has occurred
since World War II that promises to make possible a vast number of
important discoveries within the next 10 years. This may be credited
almost entirely to the development of radically new types of instrumen-
tation, as well as to the greatly increased financial support currently
available to the astronomical community for the purpose of developing
and purchasing these instruments. Considerable support provided by
the Astronomy program is being devoted to research leading to instru-
mentation developments in order to increase the range of spectral
sensitivity of astronomical observing equipment, the overall sensitivity
of the equipment to weak sources, and the resolving power (i.e., the
ability of the equipment to record as separate sources two or more
individual objects, such as markings on the surface of the moon and
planets). Astronomy is also being revolutionized by the availability of
new high-altitude platforms for telescopes. Balloons are already being
successfully used, and space vehicles will soon permit observations from
beyond the earth’s atmosphere.
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A new program for Atmospheric Sciences was established in July 1958
to meet growing interests in scientific studies of the atmospheric environ-
ment. The global observational programs of the IGY added much em-
phasis, as did the scientists’ recent successes in sending aloft space satel-
lites and increasing precipitation through modern weather modification.
This new program deals with research in meteorology, upper atmosphere
studies, cloud physics, and the energy transfer processes between earth,
sea, and air. To meet the most critical need for orderly progress in
atmospheric sciences, a threshold of long-term, stable support for basic
research and the provision of adequate research tools and facility needs
have been the major objectives during the first year.
The weather modification program is handled as part of the Atmos-
pheric Sciences research support program. It was established under
Public Law 85-5 10, which directs the Foundation to “. . . . initiate
and support a program of study, research, and evaluation in the field
of weather modification.” A full range of laboratory and field experi-
mental work is already being supported, together with the study and
improvement of the physical and statistical evaluation methods em-
ployed in determining the results of any seeding operation. The pro-
gram has the objective of studying more intensively than has been at-
tempted before the scientific basis of weather modification.
In the Chemistry program grants were made principally in the areas
of organic and physical chemistry. Support for organic chemistry dur-
ing 1959 provided for studies of solvolysis reactions, small ring com-
pounds and polycyclic systems of theoretical interest, structure and total
synthesis of natural products, transannular reactions, molecular rear-
rangements, and the chemistry of divalent carbon. In physical chemistry
support was provided primarily for investigations of spectroscopic
methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic
resonance, and infrared spectroscopy; kinetics and mechanisms of re-
actions; thermodynamic properties of molecules; and quantum mechani-
cal calculations of molecular structure. Research was also supported
in inorganic chemistry on boron compounds, the transition elements,
and the properties of optically active complex inorganic compounds; in
analytical chemistry, on polarography, gas chromatography, and on
chelating agents.
A shift in emphasis in the Earth Sciences program has resulted in
greater support for oceanography, so that a more significant fraction of
the scientific programs of oceanographic institutions might be free of
pressure for immediate practical results. As in the past, the program
has also been concerned with geophysics, geochemistry, and geology.
These areas commonly overlap both with the life and other physical
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sciences-geochemistry with chemistry, geophysics with classical physics,
paleoecology with environmental biology, geology with engineering
sciences, paleontology with systematic biology. During the year interest
has noticeably increased in seismology and crustal studies, based on the
need for more information about the crust and mantle of the earth.
The Engineering Sciences program, recognizing the broad responsi-
bilities of the engineering profession, recommends for support research
which should provide either new knowledge concerning basic physical
properties, or generalizations that reflect better understanding or more
realistic predictions of the behavior of systems. If engineering sciences
grants are identified by scientific fields, most of the research effort is
in transfer and rate mechanisms, fluid mechanics, the properties of mate-
rials, and the mechanics of solids. During this year two grants were
made in the increasingly significant field of plasma dynamics. They are
somewhat unique in that they involve the interdisciplinary efforts of
highly trained investigators in the sciences of aerodynamics, thermody-
namics, electrodynamics, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, and
applied mathematics. Another grant which will coordinate activities
of engineers, physicists, and chemists is in the field of magnetic resonance
research.
The Mathematical Sciences program has continued its support of all
areas of theoretical mathematics. Emphasis tends to mirror the pat-
terns of interest of the mathematical community, which in turn usually
correspond with the fields in which most significant progress is being
made. Thus, algebraic topology is an area which is flourishing, and is
attracting increasing efforts on the part of research mathematicians.
Among other areas in which substantial results are being achieved, one
might note a renewed activity in differential geometry and the theory
of finite groups.
The Physics program has continued to place major emphasis on high-
energy physics, particularly cosmic rays. More emphasis than in pre-
vious years has also centered on low-temperature research, such as that
exploring the dynamics of liquid helium. A noticeable trend upward
is also apparent in theoretical physics and in solid state research. There
has been an increase in cooperative research in high-energy physics in
which unique facilities, such as the cosmotron at Brookhaven and the
bevatron at Berkeley, are used by research workers from other institu-
tions. In this program the visiting scientist spends a few days or weeks
taking extensive photographs of phenomena of interest to him, and then
making the measurements and calculations in a more leisurely manner
back at his own institution. This spreading of the usefulness of the
high-energy machines among institutions otherwise cut off from active
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fields of research tends to unify the field of experimental nuclear physics.
Fundamental to the success of this type of research are means for re-
ducing the records to a form suitable for input to the high-speed calculat-
ing machines now available.
The National
Observatories
1. The National Radio Astronomy
Observatory.-After years of
planning and construction, many of the facilities of the Observatory are
approaching completion or are actually in operation. The smaller of
the two principal instruments, an 85-foot radio telescope, went into
part-time operation during March 1959 and into full operation a few
months later. This instrument is named after a man who was a prin-
cipal contributor to its design, the late Dr. Howard E. Tatel. Con-
structed by the Blaw-Knox Co., the precision of the parabolic surfaces is
such as to permit its use at radio wavelengths as short as 3 cm. The
feed of the instrument is of an unusually advanced design that provides
three distinct elements capable of receiving information simultaneously
on 3.75 cm., 21 cm., and 68 cm. This arrangement permits the tele-
scope to operate with a productivity equivalent to that of three 85-foot
telescopes equipped with more conventional feeds. Receivers of the
greatest possible sensitivity are being provided or planned for. Several
important research projects have already been carried out by the staff
and visiting astronomers, and many more are planned. (See p. 46.)
The larger of the two steerable telescopes planned for the Observatory
is a 140-foot dish. Construction of this instrument is well advanced,
the concrete pier having been completed, as well as some of the moving
parts. It seems reasonable to hope that this instrument will be in full
operation during the calendar year 196 1, despite the fact that the plans
require that the 2,000-ton, 140-foot dish retain its shape in all operating
positions to within a few millimeters.
Other facilities at the site of the Observatory at Green Bank, W. Va.,
include an office-laboratory building, a residence hall, and a mainte-
nance building. All of these will be in operation by the end of October
1959. The facilities and staff, which now numbers 40 people, have
been carefully selected to provide the finest in research opportunities
for all qualified U.S. scientists desiring to do research in the area of
radio astronomy.
2. The Kitt Peak National Observatory.-Construction of the Kitt
Peak National Observatory was started in 1959. It will have two major
telescopes for observing the stars: a 36-inch reflector scheduled for
operation during the fiscal year 1960, and an 84-inch reflector to be
completed in 1961 or 1962. Although not the world’s largest, nor of
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radically new design, these instruments will incorporate all of the
advanced techniques of recent years in order that observations of
extremely faint stars can be made.
The Observatory’s solar telescope, however, is intended to be the
largest in the world. It will have a parabolic mirror 60 inches in
diameter with a focal length of 300 feet, which will form a solar image
several times larger and more brightly illuminated (per square second
of arc) than is attainable with any other ground-based instrument.
The conversion of an undeveloped mountain top on an Indian reser-
vation into a modem astronomical observatory that will rank among
the world’s foremost is a formidable task. In addition to telescopes,
buildings, onsite roads, and utilities on the mountain, a city laboratory
building is being constructed in Tucson. This building, adjacent to
the University of Arizona campus, with instrument shops and offices, will
provide a base station for the resident staff and visiting astronomers. It
is anticipated that most of these supporting facilities will be completed
and occupied during the fiscal year 1960. A permanent paved access
road is being constructed from the base of Kitt Peak to the Observatory,
but will probably not be completed until a later date.
Long-range plans for the Kitt Peak National Observatory have en-
visioned the eventual installation on the mountain of a very large re-
flecting telescope with an aperture of perhaps several hundred inches.
However, with the sudden dawning of the space age, these plans have
been placed in abeyance in favor of a new and exciting project, namely,
the design, construction, and operation of a large, orbital (satellite) opti-
cal telescope. It seems appropriate that this project should be under-
taken at Kitt Peak under the management of the Association of Univer-
sities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., because the magnitude of the
effort would tax the resources of a single university very heavily. This
program looks beyond the specialized, smaller orbital telescopes now
being planned at several other observatories. The Kitt Peak space tele-
scope would be an accurately pointable instrument of high resolving
power which can make observations on command from the ground and
communicate them back to the earth. This is definitely a long-range
project; it may be many years before such a sophisticated, fully operable
telescope. can be placed in orbit. At present an aperture of about 50
inches is being considered. It would be most desirable to place the
instrument into a 24-hour orbit, i.e. at an altitude of about 22,000 miles
above the surface of the earth, in order to keep it in view of the ground
station at all times. It is hoped that this telescope may eventually form
a pax-t of the total instrumentation of the Observatory and be available,
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as are the other telescopes, to all qualified U.S. astronomers. The ulti-
mate cost will probably be very large, and close liaison with other U.S.
Government agencies, particularly the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, will be maintained during all phases of the project.
Facilities for Research In the Mathematical,
Physical, and Engineering
Sciences
Support provided for facilities in the mathematical, physical, and en-
gineering sciences totaled $12.3 million in fiscal year 1959, including the
national observatories described above.
As in the last few years, the largest portion of facilities money went
for support of the two national astronomical observatories. The Na-
tional Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, W. Va., received
$4,350,000 in 1959 which makes a total since 1957 of $9.5 million.
The Kitt Peak National Observatory received $4,405,000 during the
year, bringing the amount spent for this observatory up to approximately
$7.5 million.
Grants for research reactors were four in number totaling $2 million,
and were made to Texas A. & M. College, Georgia Institute of Tech-
nology, University of Buffalo, and Cornell University. In 1959, as-
sistance to the amount of $1.5 million for the establishment of computing
centers was given to the following institutions: North Carolina, Okla-
homa, Yale, Iowa State, and Cornell.
OFFICE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
During fiscal year 1959, the Foundation established an Office of
Social Sciences to support research and related activities in basic social
science disciplines. This Office replaces the previous Social Science
Research Program and represents a further step in the development of
Foundation activities in the area. It is clear that the intellectual, eco-
nomic, and social strength of our Nation requires a vigorous approach
to social problems, with scientific techniques of study making their
maximum contribution. The Foundation, in supporting basic scientific
research in the social sciences, endeavors to assist social scientists to
improve their research techniques, to accumulate fundamental knowl-
edge about human behavior and society, and to develop sound theoret-
ical bases for further inquiry. Support of basic social science research
within the framework of the National Science Foundation stimulates
interchange between natural and social scientists and will undergird any
effort on the part of others to deal with social problems and public
policy.
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Current Research Support
The Anthropological
Sciences program includes basic research in
archeology, physical and cultural anthropology, linguistics, and related
fields. Grants made in fiscal year 1959 include support for the study
of the ethnography of little understood cultures, such as the Seminole
of Florida, the Nyaturu of Kenya, and the Ibo of Nigeria. Such field
research adds to our knowledge of the varieties of human culture and
the processes of sociocultural change. Some of the archeological proj-
ects are concerned with investigation of new and improved dating
processes, such as beach-ridge dating and obsidian-hydration dating.
An expedition to the Middle East will investigate the paleoecological
aspects of the beginnings of food production. Projects in linguistics
include the application of statistical methods to problems of historic
linguistic reconstruction and a study of paralanguage among the Taos.
A grant has been made to two cryptologists to enable them to apply
modem techniques of cryptoanalysis and structural linguistics to the
still unsolved puzzle of Mayan hieroglyphics.
The Sociological Sciences program has been active in support of
laboratory studies of individual choice behavior which are directed to
increasing our knowledge of how individuals make decisions in the face
of incomplete information and uncertain outcomes. Techniques for the
measurement of attitudes and investigation of the dynamics of attitude
formation and change are other areas in which experimental research
is being supported, including studies of how resistance to attitude change
is built up, and of the nature and extent of changes in attitude which
follow the receipt of items of information that disagree with previously
held beliefs. The increased use of mat,hematical concepts and tech-
niques in the sociological sciences is evidenced by grants for the con-
struction and testing of probability models for conformity behavior and
for experimental simulation of social processes on electronic computers.
The core of the Economic Sciences program has been mathematical
economics, and grants have been made for econometric studies of param-
eter estimates, resource allocation, and time-series analysis. In addi-
tion, grants of interest and importance to basic economic theory, which
are not econometric in technique, have been made in 1959. Among
these are studies of international economic transactions, investigations
of economic behavior at the level of the individual consuming house-
hold, and research into the economic aspects of technological inventions.
The History and Philosophy of Science program provided support
for research in the history of metallurgy, studies of early American nat-
uralists, and investigations of the development of mathematical propor-
tionality. Research in the philosophy of science covered grants for
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studies on inductive probability, the philosophy of fundamental physical
theory, and the foundations of measurement.
OFFICE OF SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL
PROGRAMS
ANTARCTIC RESEARCH PROGRAM
Current Research Support
Unlike the programs previously discussed which are organized by
scientific discipline, the Antarctic Research program is supported on a
geographical basis and covers many disciplines.
Investigations underway include the following : observations and
measurements of aurora and airglow at each of the Antarctic stations;
studies in the biological and medical sciences, including bacteriology,
marine fishes, bird migration, psychology, and transmission of disease
in isolated communities; geomagnetic observations made at each of the
stations; glaciological studies, including snow accumulation, movement
of glaciers, thickness of the icecap, and chronological banding in the
ice; studies in ionospheric physics at many of the stations by probing
the ionosphere with radio transmitters and recording of special radio
signals; the collection of meteorological data at all stations and on the
traverses, with additional data from balloon-carried radiosondes;
oceanographic research carried out at each of the shoreline stations and
from the Navy supply ships in the Antarctic; seismology investigations,
including station studies with permanent seismographs to record and
measure earthquake waves, and traverse seismology in which artificial
vibrations are used to study ice thickness and subsurface geology.
An expanded program of research in the same disciplines as the above,
with the additions of studies in geodesy and cartography, cosmic rays,
gravity, and geology, will be conducted by the next team of scientists
going to the Antarctic in the fall of 1959.
(A description of the organization of the Antarctic Research Program
can be found under “Special International Programs.“)
Significant Research Developments
STRATOSCOPE INSTRUMENTATION MAKES POSSIBLE HISTORIC SUNSPOT
Pr-ro-ros.-The Stratoscope I 12-inch balloon-borne solar telescope proj-
ect supported by NSF made three successful flights from Lake Elmo,
Minn., during the summer of 1959, obtaining a great many of the
clearest photographs ever obtained of the sun’s surface, in time sequence.
The photos show details of the umbra and penumbra (center and sur-
rounding magnetic areas) of sunspots, including a large group that
seriously interrupted radio communications in August, as well as of the
polygonal convection cells elsewhere on the sun’s surface. (See p. 27.)
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These flights marked the first successful control from the ground of
an astronomical instrument in space, for the aiming and focusing of
the telescope was accomplished by remote control from a trailer van
stationed beneath a point in the estimated trajectory of the balloon.
The field of view of the telescope was continuously monitored on the
ground by a closed-circuit television system. It is expected that many
of the techniques developed in connection with this project will find
application in other models of space instruments, both balloon borne
and satellite borne.
During the flights the telescope remained at an altitude of over 15
miles for the period its camera operated, then was parachuted to earth.
Purpose of sending the telescope up in a balloon was to get it above
the earth’s atmosphere, which prevents clear visibility of celestial objects.
At its height of 80,000 feet, Stratoscope I was above about 98 percent of
the earths atmosphere.
+ * *
RESOLUTION OF FINE STRUCTURE OF GALACTIC NucLxus.-The source
of radio emission known as Sagittarius A is one of the most intense in
the whole sky. Lying very nearly in the center of our galaxy (200
million billion miles from the earth), many radio astronomers have
believed it to be the nucleus of the Milky Way. It is used as the zerc
from which galactic longitude is measured in the newly adopted system
of galactic coordinates.
An investigator working at NSF’s National Radio Astronomy Observa-
tory at Green Bank, W. Va., successfully used the new 85-foot Tatel
radio telescope to resolve Sagittarius A into at least four component
parts. One of the first results obtained with this telescope, this finding
indicates that parts of the source may not be located at the center of
the galaxy; as a result, a considerable revision in ideas of the physical
structure of the galactic center might be necessary. Whether one of
the observed components is the nucleus and the components are
subordinate to it, or whether all the components taken together make
up the galactic nucleus, must now be answered.
Y 3t *
THE NEWLY DISCOVERED ENERGY GAP AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY.-
The explanation of superconductivity, the vanishing of electrical resist-
ance in certain materials near absolute zero, has been a major unsolved
problem in theoretical physics for the past half century. Recently, how-
ever, a new theory of superconductivity has been proposed which in
explaining this phenomenon suggests the existence of an “energy gap”
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of a definite magnitude in the electronic excitation spectrum of the
superconductor. Measurements of the transmission of submillimeter
radiation through thin superconducting f%ns and measurements of the
reflection of this radiation from bulk superconductors have helped verify
the predictions of this theory. Indeed, by very ingenious experiments
using this latter technique in the far infrared, NSF grantees have pro-
vided the most direct demonstration to date of the existence of this energy
gaPa
During the same period another NSF grantee has measured very
accurately the specific heat of certain metals in the superconducting
state to test experimentally still another aspect of this new theory which
predicts the behavior of the electronic specific heat contribution. This
work has provided additional verification of the existence of this energy
gap*
These two experiments taken together comprise a major advance in
our understanding of the phenomenon of nonresistant flow of electrical
current.
+ * *
GENE STRUCTURE CORRELATED WITH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.-Much
research in genetics today is oriented toward solving the important prob-
lem of how genes act to control the metabolic (chemical) activities of
cells. Specific chemical reactions in the cell are controlled by specific
protein molecules known as enzymes, the synthesis of which is controlled
in turn by genes that are thought to determine the exact sequence of the
many subunits (amino acids) in the protein molecules.
A genetic system is being investigated which may lead us closer to an
ultimate understanding of the relationship between the fine structure
of genes and the chemistry of the cell. A map has been constructed
for a series of changes (mutations) within the particular gene that con-
trols the production of the specific enzyme responsible for the synthesis
of the amino acid, tryptophan, in the bacterium Escherichiu coli. Muta-
tions at any Point within this gene may cause loss of some or all of the
enzyme activity. In some cases, even though much of the specific
enzyme activity is lost, an altered protein can be detected by immunolog-
ical techniques; in other cases, no related protein of any kind is formed.
In either case, it is possible to produce reverse mutations in the gene,
so that the enzyme activity and other characteristics of the normal pro-
tein are fully or partially restored. Thus, the investigators now have a
series of proteins, including the original active protein, more-or-less
enzymatically inactive altered proteins produced by mutated genes, and
altered proteins whose activity has been partially or fully restored by
48

Page 16
reverse mutation. They are now determining the amino acid sequence
in each of these kinds of proteins, and they hope to correlate differences
in amino-acid sequence both with changes in the enzymatic activity of
the protein and with the position of the mutation sites in the gene.
With such a knowledge of the fine structure of the gene, the enzyme
whose production it controls, and the chemistry of the cell, it should
eventually be possible to repair hereditary defects in cellular metabolism
by deliberately changing the gene itself or by externally controlling the
synthesis of its products.
* + *
BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS .-An apparently universal characteristic of living
organisms is the ability to orient themselves in space and time by mech-
nisms best described as “biological clocks,” in much the same manner
as manmade systems.
Amphipods (sand fleas), for example, possess biological clocks which
respond to the elevation of the sun, from which they get the cues
initiating their vertical migrations. There is other evidence indicating
that certain animal forms have multiple rhythms interacting with each
other simultaneously in different frequencies so that rhythm mixing
results in new cycles. Some of these clocks are triggered by temperature
stimuli, while others may be linked to different environmental cues, such
as light stimulation or moisture stimulation. It is obvious then that
highly timed stimuli apparently can be stored in organisms at primitive
levels, although we are relatively ignorant of the evolution of such
systems within organisms from lower to higher level and from general
modalities to highly discriminating sensory organs within any one
organism.
A hypothesis developed by a Foundation-supported investigator as-
sumes that all organisms are capable of time measurement in that their
“clocks” have a common and ancient basic mechanism. This basic
element is an oscillatory system with a natural period evolved to match,
approximately, the earth’s rotation, its annual circling of the sun, and
interacting with the revolution of our moon around the earth. As an
example, one of the best known biological rhythms is that of the dally
period periodicity of the onset of running activity in small rodents. An
analysis of this periodic system has shown that the hamster “clock” has
an error that does not exceed 2 minutes in 24 hours in its activity
pattern. Within limits such patterns of activity may be modified within
various organisms by appropriate techniques, but it has also been demon-
strated that there are limits within which these systems may be vio-
lated without causing great stress and eventual death to the organisms
involved.
I
49

Page 17
I
I
I
I
/
,
_1
Potentially important contributions to the development of man-
machine systems may be derived from investigations of orientation com-
ponents and systems in organisms. Various flying, terrestrial, and
aquatic animals exhibit unique abilities of sensing, direction finding,
time discrimination, and integration of information over time, directly
relevant to the attainment of analogous objectives in the field of bio-
astronautics. These organisms possess the abilities to filter information,
detect and identify targets, discriminate faint signals from noise, navi-
gate considerable distances on coordinates not yet identified, and inter-
cept moving targets by methods which demand continued investigations.
One example of a compact and efficient navigational system is the
vocal and auditory apparatus of a bat. Although it weighs less than
1 gram, this system orients flight maneuvers in darkness, discriminates
faint echoes from minute moving targets from louder noise in the same
frequency band, and guides the interception of individual flying insects
at rates up to one every second. Still more compact sensory and inte-
grating mechanisms for detecting and filtering chemical, optical, and
mechanical signals are to be found in insects. Complex patterns of
sensory input are analyzed within a fraction of a second, and the output
of a few milligrams of nervous tissue results in a definitive decision and
appropriate action. Even the smallest and simplest of these mechanisms
is capable of recognizing patterns of sensory input rather than merely
responding when some threshold intensity is reached.
* * +
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF THYROID GLAND CONTROL OF META-
MORPHOSIS OF TADPOLE TO ADULT AMr=HmrAN.-The iodine-contain-
ing hormone (thyroxine) produced by the thyroid gland has long been
known to exercise a vital role in the regulation of developmental proc-
esses. For example, a deficiency of thyroxine results in cretinism-a
form of idiocy in humans.
In amphibians, the complex metamorphic changes which transform
the fishlike tadpole into the adult land form are subject to thyroid regu-
lation. Among the changes involved are resorption of gills and tail,
development of limbs, and numerous other transformations involving
jaws, teeth, skin, brain, and behavior. Tadpoles, in which the thyroid
is rendered inactive by the removal of the pituitary gland, do not under-
go metamorphosis. By rearing such tadpoles in solutions of thyroxine
of graded concentrations, an investigator has discovered that specific
metamorphic changes are triggered by particular concentrations of the
hormone. Another experimental series, involving substances identical
to the basic portion of the molecular structure but differing in the
50

Page 18
chemical composition of the reacting groups (analogs), indicated that
various compounds had different levels of activity and sites of action in
addition to the effects of quantities of thyroxine. It seems that the
qualitative nature of the chemical molecule of the thyroid hormone can
selectively regulate specific developmental events.
The transforming tadpole may be viewed as a complex mosaic of
parts, many of which are responsive to thyroid hormones. The nature
of the response depends not only upon the part in question, but also
upon the hormone concentration, and perhaps upon the relative pro-
portion of the different molecular forms of the hormone. Alteration
of one or more of the normal factors can produce an abnormal sequence
of developmental events.
* * +
DEPTH PERCEPTION OF HUMAN INFANTS WELL DEVELOPED BY TIME
LOCOMOTION Is POSSIBLE.-A new technique of testing for visual depth
perception is being used to shed some light upon an age-old controversy
about native and learned factors in the perception of distance. Does a
baby learn through experience to avoid falling over a vertical edge, or
is this ability to discriminate distance an inborn one? A “visual cliff”
apparatus has been developed to study this problem. (See photo on
p. 24.) The child is placed on a board which spans a large fenced-in
sheet of glass. On one side of the center board a textured linoleum
surface is laid directly under the glass (the “near” side) ; on the other
side, a matching linoleum surface is laid 3v~ feet below the glass (the
“far” side). The cues to safe descent are exclusively visual; tact&,
olfactory, or auditory cues are the same on both sides of the center
board. The investigators find that by the time locomotion is possible,
the crawling child shows a very strong preference for the “near” side,
avoiding what appears to be a sharp dropoff. The same avoidance of
an apparent dropoff has also been observed in very young rats, goats,
and chickens. It appears even in rats that have been dark reared until
20 minutes prior to testing. Depth appears to be discriminated on the
basis of visual stimulation, even when chances for previous learning are
minimal.
TEST TUBE PRODUCTION OF HEMOGLOBIN IDENTIFIES CELL PARTICU-
LATE WHICH SYNTHESIZES PROTEINS.-cd1
particulates called micro-
somes are known to play a major role in protein synthesis. Only now
with the successful synthesis of a specific protein-hemoglobin, the
1 oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells-outside the living cell is
I
their role being more fully understood.
630047–8&O
51

Page 19
Microsomes were extracted from the red blood cells of the rabbit
and mixed with two enzymes from the same type cell, energy-yielding
phosphate compounds, and a complete mixture of amino acids. Three
of the amino acids were labeled with radioactive carbon atoms. After
incubation, it was found that hemoglobin was produced containing
the labeled amino acids in the same ratio as that occurring in the natural
rabbit hemoglobin.
The red blood cell microsomal protein contains two of the three amino
acids which were labeled before being added to the mixture, but in a
different ratio than that in rabbit hemoglobin. The ratio in the synthesis
product was that of hemoglobin, thus showing that the microsomes were
making hemoglobin and not microsomal protein.
The microsomes are essential to the experiment. Without them no
labeled amino acids were taken up. The microsome must therefore
perform the role of a jig or template for the manufacture of specific pro-
tein molecules.
* * +
HORMONESYNTHESISRESULTSINLARGESTMANMADEPROTEIN
MOLE-
CULL-A pituitary hormone that is the largest polypeptide (protein)
molecule yet produced in the laboratory has been successfully synthesized.
The molecule consists of 13 amino acids linked in a specific sequence
fairly similar to ACTH in structure. This hormone stimulates the
melanocyte cells, which produce a skin coloring pigment. The hormone
may prove useful in treating albiim.
The particular significance of this synthesis is that it can be used to
study the relationship of chemical structure to biological activity. It has
been determined that relatively small fragments of the hormone, con-
taining key amino acid sequences, may possess the ability to perform the
functions of the complete hormone when large enough levels are used.
Whether or not these fragments are capable of sustaining all of the bio-
logical functions of the intact hormone remains to be established.
* it *
CATALYST BLEND FACTOR IDENTIFIED THAT TRANSFORMS SOLUBLE
FIBRIN INTOTHEINSOLUBLEFORM
(BLOOD CLOT) .-Acatalyticfactor
has been obtained from blood which apparently occurs as a complex
with fibrinogen and has the ability to transform 1,000 to 10,000 times
its own weight of soluble fibrin into the insoluble form. For the first time
it is now possible to study blood clotting at the molecular level and per-
haps minimize the trauma of surgery and accelerate wound healing.
The blood-clotting process is believed to occur in the following man-
ner. Fibrinogen, a complex polypeptide, is split by thrombin; a peptide
bond-breaking catalyst, to small units called fibrin monomers. These
52
.

Page 20
monomers polymerize into chains. After a high degree of polymeriza-
tion has been achieved, the chains are cross-linked forming a blood clot.
If the cross-linkages occur in the presence of calcium ions and the pre-
viously mentioned catalytic factor, the linkage is very strong and the clot
is quite resistant to dissolution.
l
I)
+
METHOD DEVELOPED FOR GROWING WINTER GRAINS IN TROPICS IN A
THIRD OF USUAL TIME.-Winter rye has been grown which produces
grain without cold temperatures and in one-third of usual time. Grain
is normally produced by winter rye in eight months, including a cold
spell of 6 to 8 weeks. With the use of a newly developed technique, it
now becomes feasible to raise winter rye and probably most other winter
grains in the tropics in 21/z months.
The rye plants were grown in a phytotron (a building in which it is
possible to control the various environmental factors). In this case
the temperature was kept at a constant 62” F. When the plants were
a month old and had about 10 leaves each, they were sprayed with a
plant-growth hormone, gibberelin.
Gibberelin spray eliminated the need for the prolonged cold period
required by nature for the production of winter grains. It is believed
that during the cold period the plants normally secrete and accumulate
the hormones necessary for growth and flowering.
if * *
ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF DNA (BASIC HEREDITARY MATERIAL)
LEADS TO UNDERSTANDING OF CHEMISTRY OF DNA FORMATION.-AS
previously reported, the addition of a bacterial enzyme to a mixture of
nucleic acid building blocks (nucleoside triphosphates) has resulted in
the production of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) provided a small quan-
tity of DNA is used as a primer.
The synthetic material is composed of macromolecules possessing a
high degree of intramolecular organization involving purine and pyrimi-
dine rings. The molecular structure is two stranded (double spiral),
apparently linked by hydrogen bonds similar to natural DNA.
The process of synthesis is autocatalytic (the more DNA produced,
the faster the reaction). As long as only the secondary structure of
the DNA primer is disrupted, the double-stranded DNA macromolecules
are still produced.
However, the use of an unusual DNA primer (AT-Polymer), not
obtained naturally and containing only two of the four naturally oc-
curring nucleic acid components resulted in the production of large
53

Page 21
amounts of AT-Polymer. This occurred even though all four were
present.
* * *
EXCAVATION OF THE OLDEST CONTINUOUSLY INHABITED CITY IN THE
NEW WORLD-DzIBILcHALTuN.-NoTthem Yucatan, in Mexico, is the
site of the ruins of a Mayan city inhabited for more than 3,000 years,
from 2,000 B.C. in pre-Mayan times till after the Spanish conquest by
cortez.
Partial excavation of the ruined pyramids and temples of Dzibilchal-
tun has revealed a city of 20 square miles with a central lo-square-mile
area. This “downtown” section had pyramidal temples, palaces, and
buildings of vaulted stone with thatched houses on stone foundations
crowded between the larger buildings. Surrounding this area were
the “suburbs” with fewer pyramids, but equally crowded with stone-
vaulted temples and residential platforms. A l~s-mile-long, 60-foot-
wide limestone causeway spanned the center of Dzibilchaltun-8 feet
high in some places.
The significance of the excavation of the oldest continuously in-
habited city in the New World is that it will provide an unexcelled
yardstick for studying the historic development of Mayan culture over
a continuum of more than three millennia.
+ * *
EFFECT OF TEMPTATION ON CHANGES IN ATTITUDE.-The theory of
cognitive dissonance holds that when a person is forced to do or say
something in disagreement with his privately held opinion, there will be
a tendency for opinion to change in such a way as to bring it into cor-
respondence with the act performed. Secondly the greater the pressure
used to induce the discordant act, the less will be the tendency to
change opinion. In an experimental test of this theory, changes in
moral attitudes following either cheating on a test or refraining from
cheating were investigated. A sample of students were offered a prize
for good performance on a test and were given an opportunity to cheat.
Those who did not take advantage of the opportunity and did not
cheat became more severe in their attitudes toward cheating, while
those who did cheat became more lenient. The greater the motivation
to cheat (tested by varying the value of the prize), the greater each of
these effects was. This study is one of the first to explore the conse-
quences when an individual is faced with the decision to comply with,
or violate, a standard and, if verified by further research, will increase
our ability to predict human behavior.
54

Page 22
EVIDENCE FOUND OF LARGE VOLCANIC RnuPrroN.-During a Founda-
tion-supported cruise of the oceanographic research vessel R/V ‘Vemu,
the precision depth recorder picked up a subbottom echo from an ap
parently continuous layer that extends from about 12” N. to 12” S.
latitude, and is about 5” longitude wide. It ranges from within a few
inches of the surface to as much as 120 feet below the sea floor. In the
11 cores that were obtained, the layer consisted of a clean, pure, nearly
white volcanic ash with an average thickness of 4 inches. The purity
of the ash suggests that it was deposited over a very short period of time.
Also the sediments above and below the ash are quite similar, indicat-
ing that no permanent major environmental change resulted from the
ash fall.
It is possible that this represents the volcanic debris from one major
eruption. If so, it is larger than any single explosive eruption known
in historic times. It is also possible that the ash is the product of
multiple eruptions over a short period of time and from several volcanic
centers. Although the limits of the ash are by no means known, in the
area thus far covered its volume exceeds 30 cubic miles, more than a
thousand times the volume of the famous Krakatao volcanic eruption
in 1883, which resulted in concussion heard 2,500 miles away.
Thus far an isotopic date for the ash layer has not been obtained.
Further work on dating is planned.
* + c
OCEANOGRAPHIC CRUISE RESULTS IN DISCOVERY OF MOLLUSK
THOUGHT TO BE EXTINCT FOR 300 MILLION YEARS.The same cruise
through the Caribbean and down the west coast of South America into
the South Atlantic made possible many samplings of sediments and
living animals and plants from the deep ocean. Several specimens of
neopilinids in good condition were dredged up from the bottom of the
Peru-Chile trench, one of which proved to be a brandnew species which
has been named “Neopilina (Vema) ewingi.” These small organisms
were thought to have lived only during the Paleozoic era of geologic
time and were believed to have died out at least 300 million years ago.
Their existence today is therefore as important biologically as was the
discovery of the coelecanth fish off the African coast several years ago.
All fossil forms of neopilinids so far discovered have come from sedi-
ments deposited in relatively shallow water. The newly discovered
form came from a depth of about 18,000 feet. Thus, either the neo-
pilinids were adapted to living in both deep and shallow water from
the beginning of their existence, or they gradually moved into deeper
water as the competition for life increased in the shallow waters off the
55

Page 23
continental shelves, and as they moved became progressively adapted
to life without light and under extreme pressure.
+
l
*
SEQUOM MIGRATIONS ESTABLISHED.-AII
NSF grantee has been able
to trace the history of the giant redwood or “Big Tree” from tropical
swamps 60 million years ago through adaptation to drier and cooler
climates. This involved migration from California to western Nevada
and back to California again. The modem trees are found in discon-
tinuous patches from the northern to southern Sierra Nevada range.
Fossil sequoia have been found in sediments up to 70 million years old
in California and Nevada.
The ancient species occurred in humid subtropical to warm temperate
climates and was associated with other warmth- and moisture-loving
forms. During the 10 or 20 million years of the early Tertiary period,
the climate became drier and cooler. In response the sequoia adapted
itself to the less tropical conditions, so that by about 25 million years
ago a tree much like the modem Big Tree had evolved, able to stand
cooler winters but still requiring a great deal of summer moisture. The
Sierra Nevada had not yet developed to their present great heights,
enabling the trees to spread to what is now western Nevada, benefiting
from what was then a mild, humid climate providing an ideal natural
nursery.
As the Sierra Nevada was uplifted, rainfall on the eastern side of the
range was drastically reduced and many of the leafy trees, such as birch,
sycamore, elm, and certain maples, found today only in the eastern
United States, were effectively eliminated from the area. The sequoia
and a few others managed to survive by migration across the top of
the rising mountains.
Later, faced with the much lower winter temperatures of the Pleiste
cene glacial epoch, Big Tree again migrated down into warmer climates,
remaining only in areas w,here there was enough summer moisture for
its shallow root system. The glacial ice, cutting through many valleys,
isolated patches of the sequoia one from another, in the areas where
they are generally found today.
+ + I)
A FRESH LOOK AT THE PHYSICAL WORLD AS A MANY-BODY PROB-
LEM.-Investigations carried out under one NSF grant may be expected
to lead to a unification of approach to problems in many branches of
physics, and to a significant advance in our knowledge of the physical
world. Less sophisticated theories have in the past failed to explain
many common physical phenomena, especially those encountered in
56

Page 24
the study of nuclear structure. This is so because of the extreme com-
plexity of so many nuclei. An exact solution may be found for problems
involving the simplest of all nuclei, that of hydrogen. But as the num-
ber of particles in a nucleus increases, the number of interactions among
the particles shortly becomes 50 numerous that, while equations can be
written, they are too complex to be solved.
The brilliant new theoretical approach which is enabling physicists
to overcome these obstacles is known as the “many-body” solution, and
provides a method of dealing with highly complicated physical phenom-
ena by approximations. With solutions sufficiently exact to be extremely
valuable, the new technique has proven very successful and has opened
up an entire new field for dealing with particles too numerous to be
treated individually, but too few to be treated statistically.
l
0
l
EQUIPMENT DEVELOPED WHICH PRODUCES ULTRA-HIGH PRESSURES
AND HIGH TEMPERATURES.–AI1 apparatus has been developed which
can produce ultra-high pressures and high temperatures similar to those
produced by the device which successfully synthesized diamonds, but
using different principles.
The equipment called a tetrahedral anvil can generate pressures
up to 100,000 atmospheres ( 1.5 million pounds per square inch) at
3,000” c. ; and for very short periods, at temperatures as high as
50,000” C. It consists of four anvils with triangular faces. Hydraulic
rams drive the anvils together, compressing the sample and developing
pressure in three dimensions. Heat is supplied to the sample from elec-
trical resistance heaters beneath the anvil faces.
Investigations are now being conducted on the chemical and physical
properties of matter at high pressures and high temperatures with the
apparatus. It should be particularly valuable in geochemical research
by increasing the understanding of the nature of the earth’s interior and
the manner in which minerals develop. In metallurgy, its use may lead
to the development of metals with all sorts of properties hitherto im-
possible to produce.
Research-Related Activities
Scientific Conferences and Symposia
During the past fiscal year, the Foundation sponsored and provided
partial support for 41 scientific conferences and symposia. In most in-
stances, sponsorship was shared with one or more private or public
I
agencies, including universities and scientific societies.

Page 25
1958 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENaE ON S~YI~oNDuCTo~s-R~~~~~~~, N.Y., August
18-22, 1958; Chairman:
John Bardeen, Urbana, Ill.; Cosponsor: The University of
Rochester.
PROPERTIES 01 METALS AT Low TaMPaaAruaca-Geneva,
N.Y., August 25-29,
1958; Chairman:
Milan D. Fiske, General Electric Co., Research Laboratory,
Sche-
nectady, N.Y.; Cosponsor: General Electric Co., Research Laboratory.
FRACTURE CoLLoQururd-Dedham,
Mass., September 8-11, 1958; Chairman:
B. L.
Auerbach, Department
of Metallurgy,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam-
bridge, Mass.; Cosponsor: Committee on Ship Steel and Materials Advisory Board
of the National Academy of Sciences-National
Research Council.
CONFERENCE ON FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH IN PLAIN CONCRETE-AlhtOn Park,Ill.,
September 8-12, 1958; Chairman:
Clyde E. Kesler, University
of Illinois, Urbana,
Ill.; Cosponsors: American Concrete Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Portland Cement Association, Reinforced Concrete Research Council.
CONFERENCE ON BASIC RESEARCH IN CIVIL ENGINEERIN~WaShingtOn,
D.C:, Sep-
tember lo-11,1958;
Chairman: Martin Mason, dean of engineering, George Washing-
ton University, Washington, D.C.; Cosponsors: American Society of Civil Engineers,
George Washington University.
STOPPING POWER CONPsReNcE~atlinburg,
Tenn., September 15-18, 1958; Chair-
man: Edwin A. Uehling, Department of Physics, University
of Washington, Seattle,
Wash. ; Cosponsor: National Academy of Sciences-National
Research Council Sub-
committee on Penetration of Charge Particles in Matter.
1958 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING PROM
METALS-Kansas
City, MO., September 23-25, 1958; Chairman:
J. C. Grosskreutr,
Department of Physics, Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO.; Cosponsor:
Midwest Research Institute.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
OF PROCESS METAL-
Luaov-Pittsburgh,
Pa., April 27-30, 1959; Chairman: Augustus B. Kinzel, American
Institute of Mining, Metallurgical
& Petroleum Engineers, Inc., New York, N.Y.;
Cosponsor: Metallurgical
Society of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical
&
Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
SYMPOSIUM ON PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS IN LATTICE Tnnoav-Monterey,
Calif.,
April 1959; Chairman:
J. H. Curtiss, American Mathematical
Society, Providence,
R.I.; Cosponsor: American Mathematical
Society.
CONFERENCE ON THEDESIGN ANDCONDUCT OF RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN WEATHER
MomrxCwxoN-Shenandoah
National Park, Va., May l-3, 1959; Chairman: John W.
Tukey, Department
of Mathematics,
Princeton University,
Princeton, N. J. ; Cospon-
sor: Division of Mathematics,
National
Academy of Sciences-National
Research
Council.
SYMPOSIUM ON LIQU~ DIELECTRICS- Philadelphia, Pa., May 3-7, 1959; Chairman:
Louis J. Frisco, Dielectric Laboratory,
Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, Md.;
Cosponsor: The Electromechanical
Society, Inc.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT AND TECH-
NIQuEs-Washington,
D.C., May 5-12, 1959; Chairman: Waldo E. Smith, American
Geophysical Union, Washington,
D.C. ; Cosponsors: American Geophysical Union,
International
Association of Geodesy.
SYMPOSIUM ON QUANTITATIVE BIOLOGY- Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., June 3-10,
1959; Chairman:
M. Demerec, Biological Laboratory, Long Island Biological Associ-
ation, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.; Cosponsor: Long Island Biological Association.
GENERAL PETROLEUM GEOCHEMISTRY Svr,sposrur.s-New
York, N.Y., June 4, 1959;
Chairman:
Bartholomew
S. Nagy, Department
of Chemistry, Fordham University,
New York, N.Y.; Cosponsor: Fordham University.
58

Page 26
18~~ Gaowrss Svr.sPosxuss-University
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., June 11-13,
1959; Chairman:
Ralph 0. Erickson, Department of Botany, University of Pennsyl-
vania, Philadelphia,
Pa. ; Cosponsor : Society for the Study of Development
and
Growth.
CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL PuarPrNo-Ann
Arbor, Mich., June 15-19, 1959; Chair-
man: Peter Franken, Department
of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Mich. ; Cosponsor : University of Michigan.
MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING & AIR-CONDITIONING ENGI-
NEERS-Philadelphia,
Pa., January, 1959; Chairman:
John Everetts, Jr., American
Society of Heating & Air-Conditioning
Engineers, Philadelphia, Pa.; Cosponsor: The
Technical Advisory Committee on Physiological Research and Human Comfort.
PILOT CROSS-DISCIPLINARY CLINIC ON THE INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS FOR
CLOUD AND WEATHER MoDrFIcATIoN-Cambridge,
Mass., February 1 l-13, 1959;
Chairman:
Lloyd E. Slater, Foundation
for Instrumentation
Education and Re-
search, New York, N.Y.; Cosponsors: American Meteorological
Society, Foundation
for Instrumentation
Education and Research, Meteorology Department, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
Two REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY CONFERENCES-AihgstOr
Point, Fla.,
March 13-14, 1959, and Colby College, Waterville,
Maine, March 23-24, 1959;
Chairman:
Victor Twitty, Department
of Zoology, Stanford University,
Stanford,
Calif. ; Cosponsor: American Society of Zoologists.
MIDWEST CONFERENCE ON THEORETICAL PHysrcs-Evanston,
Ill., March 13-14,
1959; Chairman:
Max Dresden, Department
of Physics, Northwestern
University,
Evanston, Ill. ; Cosponsor: Northwestern
University.
SECOND CONFERENCE ON THE NUCLEAR
OPTICAL MonxL-Tallahassee,
Fla., March
16-l 7, 1959; Chairman:
Alex E. S. Green, Department of Physics, Florida State
University,
Tallahassee, Fla. ; Sponsor: Florida State University.
SYMPOSIUM ON ASTRONOMICAL ASPECTS OF COSMIC %ys-University
of Rochester,
Rochester, N.Y., March 30-April 2, 1959; Chairman:
Malcolm P. Savedoff, Depart-
ment of Physics, University
of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.; Cosponsors: University
of Rochester, American Astronomical Society.
TECHNICAL CoNmmENaa ON PHYSICAL METALLURGY OF STRESS-CORROSION FUG-
Tuax-Pittsburgh,
Pa., April 2-3, 1959; Chairman:
R. W. Shearman, The Mctal-
lurgical
Society of the American
Institute
of Metallurgical
Engineers,
New
York, N.Y.; Cosponsor:
The Metallurgical
Society of the American Institute of
Metallurgical
Engineers.
THIRD
SYMPOSIUM ON ROCK MxcHaNrcs-Golden,
Colo., April 2O-22,1959; Chair-
man: Lute J. Parkinson, Department
of Mining Engineering, Colorado School of
Mines, Golden, Colo.; Cosponsor: Colorado School of Mines.
SECOND ASTRO~~ETRIC CoNrxaaNcx-Cincinnati,
Ohio, April 20-23, 1959; Chair-
man: Paul Herget, Director, Cincinnati Observatory,
Cincinnati, Ohio; Cosponsor:
Cincinnati Observatory, University of Cincinnati.
CONFERENCE ON THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE MOUNTAIN GoamLA-Wash-
ington, D.C., September 30, 1958; Chairman:
Fairfield Osbom, New York Zoo-
logical Society, New York, N.Y.; Cosponsor: New York Zoological Society.
SPECIAL CONFERENCE ON CLOUD Pssvsrcs-Woods
Hole, Mass., September 1958;
Chairman:
Helmut Weickmann,
Section of Meteorology,
American Geophysical
Union, National
Academy of Sciences, Washington,
D.C.; Cosponsor:
American
Geophysical Union Committee on Cloud Physics.
SYMPOSIUY ON IMAGE INTENSIFICATION-Fort Belvoir, Va., October 8-7, 1958;
Chairman:
Robert S. Wiseman, Warfare Vision Branch, U.S. Army Engineer Re-
59

Page 27
search and Development
Laboratories,
Fort Belvoir, Vs.; Cosponsor:
U.S. Army
Engineer Research and Development Laboratories.
~NPBlurNCJZ ON SYSTEYATID MUSEULIS AS IhOuRCsS POR BASIC RESEARCE-
University of the State of New York, Albany, N.Y., October 13-14, 1958; Chairman:
William N. Fenton, New York State Museum and Science Service, Albany, N.Y.;
Cosponsor: The University of the State of New York.
CONFERENCE ON VERTEBRATE SPECLUXON-UtiVCrSity of Texas, Austin, Tex.,
October 26-November
1, 1958; Chairman:
W. Frank Blair, Department of Zoology,
University of Texas, Austin, Tex. ; Cosponsor: University
of Texas.
JOINT MELTINO OF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BRICK AND STRUCTURAL
ENOINEERINO AND THE STRUCTURAL DIVISION OF hfERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL
ENGINEERS-NCW York, N.Y., October 1958; Chairman:
Frank Baron, Department
of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.; Cosponsor: American
Society of Civil Engineers.
SYMPOSIUM ON PLANETARY RNXO ASTRONOMY-GaheSVi&,
Fla., Decembei 28,
1958; Chairman:
Alex G. Smith, Department
of Physics, University
of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla. ; Cosponsors : University of Florida, American Astronomical
Society.
SPECIAL CONFERENCE ON CONTEMPORARY GEooEsv-Harvard
University,
Decem-
ber 1958; Chairman:
Milton 0. Schmidt, University
of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.; Co-
sponsors : Section of Geodesy of the American Geophysical
Union, Astrophysical
Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution.
SECOND CARIBBEAN GEOLOWCAL CowFaaaNcE-Mayaguez,
P.R., January 5-9,
1959; Chairman:
John D. Weaver, professor of geology, University
of Puerto Rico,
Mayaguez, P.R.; Cosponsors: University
of Puerto Rico, Economic Development
Administration
of the Commonwealth
of Puerto Rico.
SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAONETIC THaoav-Toronto,
Canada, June 15-20, 1959;
Chairman:
George Sinclair, University
of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Cosponsor:
Commission VI of the International
Scientific Radio Union.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUIT AND INFORMATION THGORY–LOS Angeles,
Calif., June 16-18, 1959; Chairman:
R. A. Epstein, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Institute of Radio Engineers, Pasadena, Calif.; Cosponsors:
Institute of Radio
Engineers, International
Scientific Radio Union.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MOLECULAR QUANTUM MEcnArucs-Boulder,
Colo., June 17-21, 1959; Chairman:
Robert G. Parr, Department
of Chemistry,
Carnegie Institute
of Technology,
Schenley Park, Pittsburgh,
Pa.; Cosponsor:
University of Colorado.
FOURTH BIENNIAL SYMPOSIUM ON ANIMAL REPaoDuCTIoN-Urbana,
Ill., June
18-20, 1959; Chairman:
N. L. VanDemark,
University
of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.;
Cosponsor : University of Illinois.
CONFERENCE ON THE PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHLMICAL COMPOUNDS
OF CERTIFIED HIGH PURITY-Washington,
D.C., June 22-23, 1959; Chairman:
Clem 0. Miller, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, National Academy
of Sciences-National
Research Council, Washington,
D.C. ; Cosponsor : National
Academy of Sciences-National
Research Council.
THE INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE ON ATMOSPRERIC PoLLunoru-Santa
Barbara, Calif., June 29-30, 1959; Chairman:
Kenneth C. Spengler, American
Meteorological
Society, Boston, Mass. ; Cosponsor: The Committee on Air Pollution,
American Meteorological
Society.
WORKSHOP ON BIOLOOICAL PHENOMENA IN SUBMOLECULAR LavaLs-Marine
Bio-
logical Laboratory,
Woods Hole, Mass., June, July, and August, 1959; Chairman:
Albert Szent-Gorgyi,
Institute for Muscle Research, Marine Biological Laboratory,
Woods Hole, Mass.; Cosponsor: Marine Biological Laboratory.
60

Page 28
Support of travel to International
Moerfngs
Personal contact between highly competent scientists from all over
the world, conducting similar types of research, is one of the most im-
portant means by which ideas are exchanged. This sort of croa+fert&
zation is vital to the advancement of scientific knowledge. The Founda-
tion, therefore, partially defrays travel costs for a limited number of
American scientists to attend selected international meetings and con-
gresses abroad. The grant to the scientist generally provides for a
round-trip, air-tourist fare between his home institution and the location
of the meeting. In the 1959 fiscal year, 419 scientists received such
awards at a cost of approximately $330,000.
Training Aspects of Research Grants
The research grants program continued to contribute significantly
to the training of both predoctoral and postdoctoral research assistants
and associates. During 1959, approximately 2,000 of these people
received the highest caliber of training through their participation in
research projects under the supervision of many of this country’s most
competent scientists.
Combining this number with the approximately 4,000 awards offered
through the Foundation’s formal fellowship programs gives a total of
6,000 who have been provided with the opportunity to further their
scientific education and laboratory training under the most favorable
and productive conditions.
Fiscal Analysis of Research Programs
During the 1959 fiscal year, 1,809 grants were made in support of
basic research to 333 institutions in all 50 States, the District of Colum-
bia, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Bermuda, Canada, France, Israel, and
Turkey. Expenditures for research in the sciences totaled $64.5
million-$49 million for research grants and $15.5 million for facilities.
The average 1959 research grant amounts to $27,153 for a period of
2.26 years, or $12,015 a year. (See fig. 1.) While the duration of
the average grant has increased only slightly in the past year, the amount
has increased by 40 percent. This is a reflection of the ability to provide
more nearly adequate support for requests for research funds.
Facilities grants were discussed in detail previously in the sections
dealing with the programs of research divisions and offices.
Table 1 summarizes the research grant program by subject categories.
A detailed list of grants showing institutions, principal grantee, title of
project, and amount is given in appendix C.
61

Page 29
loblo 1 .–Notional
Scimce Foundation granfr, by leldr of ~hco,
tPSI-59
Field
Biological and medical sciences:
Developmental …………
Environmental
…………
Genetic ………………
Metabolic …………….
Molecular.
……………
Psychobiology.
………..
Regulatory ……………
Systematic ……………
General. ……………..
Mathematical,
physical, and en-
gineering sciences:
Astronomy …………….
Atmospheric sciences. …….
Chemistry. …………….
Earth sciences. …………
Engineering sciences. …….
Mathematical
sciences. …..
Physics. ……………..
Social sciences:
Anthropological.
. . . . . .
.
Sociological . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
History and philosophy
of
science . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antarctic research (life and phys-
ical sciences). . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fiscal year, 1958
Number
48
78
57
74
78
62
70
103
35
605
33
. . . . . . .
134
70
88
72
69
466
22
14
5
8
49
604,300
953,600
711,150
1,482,350
1,609,lOO
968,800
1,075,280
1,036,350
440,100
8,881,130
1,017,830
. . . . . . . . . .
2,323,900
1,246,395
1,538,400
1,242,lOO
2,139,200
9,507,825
384,100
182,100
93,300
66,450
725,950
922,800
62
Fiscal year, 1959
Number
87
119
78
116
148
77
103
182
57
967
51
46
199
85
129
94
142
746
23
14
5
11
53
1,809
Amount
1,591,700
2,333,700
1,780,650
3,141,600
4,059,400
1, 518,800
2,575,245
2,568,600
891,910
20,461,605
1,955,175
2,920,769
4, 406,445
2,063,860
4,311,POO
2,556,175
5,509,lOO
23,723,424
353,700
279,000
137,900
118,700
889,300
4,057,200
49,121,529

Page 30
~,ovrl DIRECT COSTS
——— –___________ SALARY COSTS
——- -________
/
i
Indirect Costs = 13.8% of’
Total Direct Costs = $ 3,747
Figure 1 .-Distribution
of research grant funds, by type
of expenditure,
bored on overage
1
grant for fiscal year 1959 of $27,153.
65

Page 31
TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN THE SCIENCES
The availability of increased funds in fiscal year 1959, $62.5 com-
pared to $20.5 millions in 1958, made possible a more vigorous and
varied attack on the problems of science education by the Division of
Scientific Personnel and Education. Old programs were expanded and
new programs were established.
As in the past, the program activities of the Division were directed
toward the attainment of excellence in science education and were
focused on specific problems witbin the following general areas:
( 1) Motivation and support of high-caliber students and ad-
vanced scholars in science, mathematics, and engineering.
(2) Supplemental training in subject matter for teachers of
science, mathematics, and engineering at all levels in the educa-
tional system.
(3) Development of new and more realistic course-content ma-
terials and teaching and learning aids.
(4) Improvement of information about the training, utiliiation,
and need for scientific and technological manpower.
The Foundation’s general approach to problems of science educa-
tion is based fundamentally on the principle that the improvement of
education in the sciences must come from within the scientific and edu-
cational communities themselves. Such improvement requires close
cooperation between those whose work is primarily research and these
who teach.
For the most part, support has gone directly to educational institu-
tions, professional societies, and other organizations of scientists and
science teachers for the implementation of activities which they them-
selves have developed and which our advisers have agreed show promise
of success. These advisers-se ientists and science teachers-come from
the high schools, the colleges and universities, industry, and govern-
mental agencies.
64

Page 32
Motivation
and Support of High-Caliber
Students and Advanced
Scholars
Since the most important element in science education is the learner,
primary attention must be given to him. His interests must be de-
veloped and his motivations strengthened. If he is to become an ad-
vanced scholar, it must be possible for him to remain in school. A
major share of NSF funds has gone to the support of programs in this
area. Programs reach students at every level in the educational struc-
ture, from the junior high school (science clubs and student science
projects) through the highest levels of graduate training (senior post-
doctoral fellowships).
One of the most interesting-potentially one of the most promising-
of the new programs this year was the Summer Science Training Pro-
gram for Secondary School Students. Through the support provided,
about 6,000 highly selected high school students were able to spend time .
on the campuses of colleges and universities and at research activities
of other kinds and to participate in scientific activities in a variety of ways.
A number of other programs are directed toward the motivation and
training of precollege students who are interested in science and mathe-
matics. Many of the projects to be conducted under the new State
Academies of Science Program will reach these youth. A considerable
amount of support will be provided by the State academies for activities
in the junior academies of science and for enrichment of the science club
and science fair programs.
Additional support was given to each of the “old” programs which
have been directed primarily toward secondary school students: Visiting
Scientists, Traveling Science Libraries, Traveling Science Demonstration
Lectures, Science Clubs and Student Science Projects, and Career
Information.
The first substantial effort to improve the training of undergraduate
students of science, mathematics, and engineering was launched during
the past year under the program title “Undergraduate Research Partici-
pation.” Essentially, the program makes possible participation by under-
graduate students in actual research being conducted in colleges, univer-
sities, and other nonprofit research institutions. Under the 2 13 grants
which were made, approximately 2,200 students were able to participate
in scientific activity of a relatively high order. Not only should this
program help to motivate many of the more able undergraduate students
to continue into graduate work, but it should contribute much to their
actual training in the methods and techniques of science.
65
I

Page 33
Two new programs were initiated for the support of graduate students
and advanced scholars-the Cooperative Graduate Fellowship Program
and Summer Fellowships for Graduate Teaching Assistants. The Co-
operative Graduate Fellowship Program is similar in many respects
to the established program of Graduate Fellowships. The essential dif-
I
ferences are that the cooperating institutions participate in the evaluation
of applicants and that they receive specific amounts to apply toward the
cost of education of the fellows. The program of Summer Fellowships
for Graduate Teaching Assistants is an innovation aimed at making it
possible for the graduate teaching assistant to pursue his own studies
and research during the summers, and thus hasten the completion of
his graduate work. The need for the program is reflected in the fact
that more than 1,200 teaching assistants in 105 institutions applied for
these fellowships in the first year of operation.
Supplemental
Training for Teachers
While many factors combine in the “effective” science teacher, the
fundamental one is knowledge of his field. For a number of years, an
increasing amount of support has been provided for programs which
supplement the subject-matter knowledge of teache~particularly
at
the secondary school level. This support, in the past, has been concen-
trated largely in the now well-known summer institutes. Growing
programs of Academic Year and In-Service Institutes have extended the
opportunities of secondary school teachers to obtain supplemental sub-
ject-matter training. That the same problem exists at the college and
university levels has been recognized and is being dealt with through
Summer Institutes and Summer Conferences for College Teachers and
Science Faculty Fellowships.
A number of new programs in the area of supplemental teacher
training inaugurated in 1959 have been designed to bolster weak spots in
the area of teacher qualifications; these programs now span the entire
spectrum from the elementary and junior high schools through the
graduate levels.
Secondary school teachers of science and mathematics differ widely
in the extent and quality of their subject-matter training. Many are
trying to provide adequate instruction to their students when they them-
selves have had little or no formal training in the subjects which they
are teaching. Others are bona fide graduate students who need the
opportunity to progress in their fields of specialization. In the past,
efforts have been made to reach both groups-and those between the
extremes-through the institutes programs. Many summer institutes
66

Page 34
have been designed to reach teachers at particular levels within this
range.
These institutes have not been adequate, however, to serve the needs
of the best qualified of the secondary school teachers of science and
mathemati-those
whose primary need is to pursue graduate study
toward advanced degrees in their fields of specialization. For this rea-
son, the new program of Summer Fellowships for Secondary School
Teachers was designed and introduced during fiscal year 1959. The
mechanism of this program is very similar to that used in the Graduate
Fellowship programs, and in the summer of 1959 the first awardees-
selected by the Foundation through a national competition and studying
in their individually designed programs of study at the institutions of
their choice-began receiving stipends for durations of one to three
summers.
The Research Participation for Teacher Training Program provided
another method of improving the professional competence of the best
qualified science and mathematics teachers in secondary schools and
colleges. This program made it possible for teachers with an adequate
subject-matter background to participate in ongoing research programs
at institutions with established research traditions. This experience
provided the participating teacher an insight into science not gained by
course work.
Three important new activities designed for groups of science
teachers not previously included or to meet other special needs were
launched within the institutes framework. These programs were di-
rected toward groups of teachers of science, mathematics, and engineer-
ing whose needs had not been met through other programs.
Growing recognition of the importance of science education as a part
of the general education program at the elementary school level led to
the first tentative and experimental approach by the Foundation in this
area-to help determine the responsibilities of the Foundation and ways
in which it might best meet these responsibilities. A small program of
12 Summer Institutes for Elementary School Teachers and Supervisors
was supported.
There was a special need for programs designed for science and mathe-
matics instructors in technical institutes, who teac,h generally at the
college level and whose academic backgrounds are widely varied. For
this reason, two exploratory special Summer Institutes for Technical
Institute Personnel were supported.
For a number of reasons, it appeared that the Summer Institutes for
College Teachers were not completely filling the need for summer sup-
580047-7
67

Page 35
plemental training. Two of the most important factors to be considered
were that the institutes were too long in duration for many teachers and
that many teachers had need for more specialized training than the insti-
tutes could offer. Accordingly, the new program of Summer Conferences
for College Teachers was introduced on an experimental basis in 1959.
Approximately 20 summer conferences-all of less than 4 weeks in dura-
tion, and covering a variety of specialized subject matter areas-were
supported. About 530 college and university teachers attended.
The programs for the supplemental training described above are more
or less formalized and “programmatic” in nature. A concentrated effort
is being made to discover ways to meet still other needs in the training of
teachers at all levels. A number of projects of this nature were supported
in 1959, ranging from highly specialized field institutes to short con-
ferences on college teaching and workshops for teachers at the lower
academic levels.
Course-Content
Materials
and leaching
Aids
It is necessary, of course, that we have well-motivated students and
scholars working under the direction of well-qualified teachers if we are
to meet our national need both for scientific literacy in the whole popu-
lation and for adequate numbers of highly competent scientists and sci-
ence teachers at all levels. But this is not sufficient; another factor which
cannot be overlooked is the provision of improved instructional ma-
terials–the tools which enable the teacher to best do his job.
The ever-increasing acceleration in the acquisition of scientific and
technological knowledge, together with its manifold impact on every area
of human thought and activity, has produced a serious lag between ad-
vances in science and technology and their presentation in the classroom.
The complexity and implications of this problem led to an initially
experimental approach by the Foundation through grants both for rela-
tively small, exploratory projects in several fields and for a pioneering
major effort to bring scholarship of the highest order to the development
of a new physics course for the high schools. The success of these ven-
tures, particularly of the Physical Sciences Study Committee in devising
the new physics course, led to support for comparable projects in other
disciplines and for a variety of efforts to improve course content and
develop new supplementary teaching aids.
Improvement
of Scientific Manpower
Information
Basic to the understanding of the problems of science education and to
the development of programs to meet these problems is manpower in-
formation. We must know, in a substantive way, not only our present
and future needs for scientists, technologists, and teachers at all levels
68

Page 36
and in all fields, but we must be able to assess the status of training and
education with respect to meeting these needs. For this reason, the ac-
tivities of the Scientific Manpower Program have been expanded in ways
designed to provide better and more current information of many kinds.
Other Activities
Because our international relationships are vital and science education
cannot be contained within national boundaries, an effort was made dur-
ing fiscal year 1959 to explore ways in which we could profit by the ex-
perience of our international neighbors in coping with our own problems.
These exploratory activities touched upon each of the major problem
areas in which we have program interests–students and advanced schol-
ars, the training of teachers at the secondary-school and college levels,
course content and teaching aids, and the collection and dissemination of
scientific manpower information.
Fellowship Programs
Traditionally, fellowships are considered by the academic community
as a form of grant to selected individuals to enable those individuals to
further their own education. Fellowships are clearly distinct in concept
from grants designed to underwrite a specific project-research or de-
velopment-and do not normally require that the recipient render any
services to the donor.
The National Science Foundation fellowship programs provide sup
port for scientific study or work in mathematics, the sciences, and engi-
neering. Fellows are selected in national competition solely on the basis
of ability. They have freedom of choice in selecting the educational
institutions which they desire to attend.
Seven fellowship programs were in operation during fiscal year 1959-
Graduate (Predoctoral) , Postdoctoral (Regular), Senior Postdoctoral,
Science Faculty, Cooperative Graduate, Summer Fellowships for Gradu-
ate Teaching As&ants, and Summer Fellowships for Secondary School
Teachers.
A total of 3,937 fellowships were awarded in 1959; their value was
approximately $13.1 million. (Appendix F shows the distribution of
fellowship awards by type, field, and State.)
Graduate
Fellowships
(Predoctoral)
The Graduate Fellowships program offers support to unusually able
students working for master’s or more advanced degrees to enable them
to complete their studies as quickly as possible. In 1959, a total of
1,100 awardees were selected from 4,506 applicants; program support
69

Page 37
amounted to approximately $3.2 million. Honorable mention was ac-
corded 1,979 applicants.
Stipends for these 1959 awards were set at $1,800, $2,000, and $2,200
per year depending on the level of the fellowship-first year, intermediate,
or terminal. In addition to stipends, financial support is provided for
tuition, dependents, and other allowances.
Postdoctoral
Fellowships
Postdoctoral Fellowships are intended especially for those individuals
who have received a doctor’s degree within the past 5 years. The pro-
gram’s objective is to improve the capabilities and stature of such persons
as investigators in their chosen fields of research.
In fiscal year 1959, there were 778 applications and a total of 194
awards for tenure ranging from 6 to 24 months, depending on the pro-
gram planned by the individual. The cost of the program for those
accepting awards was approximately $1.1 million.
Postdoctoral fellows are provided with stipends at the rate of $4,500
per year ($5,000 per year for portions of tenure beyond 12 months), plus
allowances for dependents, travel, and special expenses.
Senior Postdoctoral
Fellowships
The Senior Postdoctoral Fellowships program is designed to enable rec-
ognized senior scientists, engineers, and mathematicians to be relieved of
their normal professional responsibilities so that they may pursue a full-
time program of study designed to broaden their knowledge and to im-
prove their capabilities as investigators.
During 1959,241 scientists applied for these fellowships; 83 individuals
were offered awards. The estimated cost was $767,000.
Tenures are from 3 to 24 months, with stipends of the salary-matching
type not exceeding $12,000 per year. Allowances for travel and special
expenses are available.
Science Faculty Fellowships
The aim of the Science Faculty Fellowships program is the direct im-
provement of science education by providing college and university
faculty members with the opportunity to improve and update their
knowledge of the fields in which they have specialized (or of closely
related fields), and hence their competency as college teachers. This
program permits faculty members to be relieved of teaching responsibili-
ties in order to pursue a full-time study program.
Of the 1,069 individuals who applied, awards were offered to 302.
The coat of this program during 1959 was about $2.3 million.
70

Page 38
Science Faculty Fellows may elect tenures ranging from 3 to 15
months and receive stipends on a salary-matching basis (not to exceed
$12,000 per year) as of the time of application. In addition, they are
provided with allowances for travel, special expenses, and tuition, if
required.
Summer Fellowships
for Secondary School Teachers of Science and
Mathematics
New in fiscal year 1959, the program of Summer Fellowships for
Secondary School Teachers of Science and Mathematics permits second-
ary school teachers of high ability to undertake individually planned
programs of summer study to improve their subject matter competence,
and thus enhance their effectiveness as teachers.
Tenures from one summer of 6 weeks to three full summers are
available. Stipends total $75 for each week of tenure. In addition, the
Foundation awards cover the cost of tuition, pIus limited travel and
dependency allowances. The selection of 628 awardees was made from
1,578 applicants during 1959, the first year of the program, at a cost
of approximately $1.5 million.
Summer Fellowships
for Graduate leaching Assistants
A second new program introduced in 1959, the Summer Fellowships
for Graduate Teaching Assistants, enables graduate teaching assistants
of participating institutions to devote full time, during the summer, to
their own study and research.
A total of 1,260 teaching assistants submitted applications for fellow-
ships for the summer of 1959 and 580 were offered awards, Program
support amounted to about $500,000 for those accepting awards.
A summer fellow may select a tenure ranging from 8 to 12 weeks, at
a weekly stipend of between $50 and $75 (determined by the institu-
tion) . Tuition and required fees are paid by the Foundation.
Cooperative
Graduate Fellowships
The Cooperative Graduate Fellowships program established during
the past year has, like the older program of Graduate Fellowships, the
function of offering support for predoctoral studies. It differs, however,
in that the institutions themselves play a larger part in the evaluation
of applicants and in the administration of the program. A greater
distribution of fellows among the Nation’s schools of graduate study
has been achieved through this program.
A Cooperative Graduate Fellow receives a stipend of $2,200 for a
12-month tenure. The amount may be augmented by the institution at
a rate not exceeding $800 per year. In lieu of tuition and fees, a cost-
71

Page 39
of-education allowance of $1,800 is provided to the institution for each
fellow. Fellows may undertake limited teaching duties as a justifiable
part of their academic training.
A total of 2,872 individuals applied through 111 colleges and univelsi-
ties in 1959. The Foundation offered awards to 1,050 individuals,
representing 105 institutions. The cost of the program was about $3.7
million.
NATO Science Fellowships
The North Atlantic Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion established the NATO Science Fellowships program in the fall of
1958. The program is designed to stimulate the exchange of scientists
among the NATO countries by the fellowships mechanism; each mem-
ber nation is charged with selecting fellows from among its own
population. The Foundation, at the request of the Department of
State, administered the program under the title “NATO Postdoctoral
Fellowships in Science” for the United States.
Of the 91 Americans who applied, 20 were selected and will study
in various NATO countries and Sweden.
Institutes Programs
The primary objective of the institutes programs is to improve science
instruction through making it possible for teachers in secondary
schools and colleges to obtain additional knowledge of subject matter
and to become acquainted with new developments in science and mathe-
matics. The institutes are characterized as “group” activities-as con-
trasted with the individual activities of fellows-and employ course
materials specially prepared to meet the subject matter needs of the
teachers.
Four major institute programs are supported by the Foundation:
(1) Summer Institutes for High School Teachers of Science and Mathe-
matics, (2) Summer Conferences for College Teachers, (3) Academic
Year Institutes for High School and College Teachers, and (4) In-
Service Institutes for High School Teachers. Limited experimental
programs also being supported include Summer Institutes for Elemen-
tary School Teachers and Supervisors, Summer Institutes for Faculty
of Technical Institutes and Technical Curricula in Junior Colleges,
and In-Service Institutes for Elementary Science Teachers.
Fiscal year 1959 costs totaled $33.6 million for 348 summer institutes
for high school and college teachers, 12 summer institutes for elementary
school teachers and supervisors, 32 academic year institutes, 182 in-
service institutes, 20 summer conferences, 12 elementary summer insti-
tutes, 11 elementary inservice institutes, and 2 summer programs for
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technical institute personnel. The 1959 program was about two and
a half times as large as that of 1958.
Proposals for institutes originate with the colleges and universities
and the institutes are conducted by them. The Foundation does not
participate in the selection of participants or the operation of the
institutes.
Summer Institutes
From a program that started out in 1953 with approximately 100
participants, 42 of whom received NSF stipends, the summer institutes
program had grown by 1959 to one with 2 1,000 participants, 20,000
of whom received NSF stipends.
The content offered by these institutes has grown also. From a
modest beginning of two different programs, the offerings have become
more varied until institutes in the summer of 1959 represented 12 dif-
ferent fields in science and mathematics. There are NSF summer pro-
grams in each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico.
Two additional summer training activities were established in fiscal
year 1959-Summer Conferences for College Teachers and Summer
Programs for Technical Institute Personnel. An experimental program
to provide summer institute experience for elementary-school super-
visors and teachers in the area of science and mathematics also was
initiated in the summer of 1959.
1. Summer Institutes for Secondary School and College Teachers.-
The summer institutes for high school and college teachers have increased
from 2 in 1953 to 348 during the summer of 1959. They are designed
to improve the competence of the participating teachers by providing
courses that are specially aimed at overcoming deficiencies in their knowl-
edge of the subject matter of science and mathematics. Most of the
participants have completed their formal coursework a number of years
ago, and others must teach courses in science and mathematics for which
they have not had adequate academic preparation.
The institutes vary in length from 4 to 12 weeks. The average in
1959 was 7 weeks. The number of participants in each institute in 1959
varied from 10 to 150.
Of the 348 summer institutes in 1959, 30 were for college teachers
only; 19 were for both secondary school and college teachers; and the
remaining 299 were for secondary school teachers only.
Adequate balance in geographic distribution was maintained; for
example, 57 percent of the institutes were held east of the Mississippi
and 43 percent were held west of the Mississippi. There were 51 sum-
mer institutes in New England and New York, 86 in the other Eastern
States and the District of Columbia, 53 in the Southeastern States, 52 in
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the Midwest, 61 in the Southwest and Hawaii, 41 in the Rocky Moun-
tain and Northwest region (including Alaska), and 4 in the Common-
wealth of Puerto Rico.
The National Science Foundation grants provided funds for partici-
pant support. The maximum amount awarded a participant was set
by the Foundation at $75 per week for stipend, plus allowance for
dependents and travel. While most institutes followed this schedule
and granted the maximum allowable amounts to each awardee, a few
distributed their available funds in smaller amounts to more partici-
pants. Many of the institutes accepted a few registrants beyond those
who received stipends.
The National Science Foundation in addition awarded each host
institution sufficient funds to pay necessary tuition and fees for the
stipend holders. The Foundation grant also covered direct costs oc-
casioned by t,he institute to the extent that they exceeded the amount
already allowed for tuition and fees.
One of the essential features of this program is that the institutes
are managed so that the participants are treated as a special group and
their identity maintained. They are usually housed together, and often
spend scheduled out-of-class time together in company with their
instructors.
2. Summer Institutes for Elementary School Teachers and Super-
visors.-This program was developed on an experimental basis in 1959.
These experimental institutes are specifically designed to give key teach-
ers and supervisory personnel in elementary schools an opportunity to
increase their knowledge of the sciences and mathematics, in order that
science and mathematics can be taught more effectively to students in
the elementary schools.
T.his experimental program of 12 institutes provided training for 5 15
teachers and elementary school science supervisors.
3. Summer Programs for Technical Institute Personnel.-Also
experi-
mental in nature, these programs are specifically designed to meet the
subject matter needs, primarily in science and mathematics, of the
teacher in technical institutions not conferring the baccalaureate degree.
The first two programs in this category were supported in fiscal year
1959.
4. Summer Conferences for College Teachers.-Summer conferences
were supported for the first time as a formal program activity in 1959.
The conferences are specifically designed to consider specialized subject
matter areas of science and mathematics. Through the use of short
courses or series of lectures of less than 4 weeks’ duration, these con-
ferences facilitate an exchange of ideas among the participants and
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provide them an opportunity to learn of recent subject material
advances.
There were 546 college teachers of science and mathematics supported
in this program of 20 conferences during 1959.
Academic Year Institutes
Academic year institutes are full-time, year-long programs of study
in science and mathematics designed especially for secondary school
teachers in these fields. Financial support for the teacher and for the
host institution is provided by a grant from the Foundation. The
courses of study are planned by the colleges and universities which
sponsor them; each institution supplies the facilities and administers its
own program.
For the 1959-60 Academic Year Institute program, 32 colleges and
universities received awards. The 32 institutes represent 32 different
institutions in 29 States. Seven of these institutes are in the field of
mathematics only, while the other 25 give training in the principal
sciences, as well as in mathematics. Twenty-two of the institutes will
continue through the summer of 1960; 10 are for the academic year
only. Supplementary experimental grants were made to three institutes
for support of eight college teachers-“teachers of science”-in each
institute. It is estimated that the 1959-60 program will give support
to over 1,500 teachers from all 50 States.
During this year, supplementary grants were also made to 19 of the
1958-59 institutes to enable them to extend their programs through
the summer of 1959 for about 450 teachers.
Foundation grants to sponsoring institutions provide a maximum
stipend of $3,000 per academic year, plus additional allowances for
dependents, travel, and books. Institutions receive support for the opera-
tional costs, so that teachers do not have to pay tuition or fees.
In-Service Institutes
In-service institutes provide support in the form of grants to institu-
tions of higher learning for programs offering opportunities to teachers
from secondary schools for further study in the subject matter of the
sciences and mathematics during out-of-school hours in the academic
year.
Participating teachers receive no stipends but are given a travel
allowance at the maximum rate of 7 cents per mile for each trip from
home to institute and return. The sponsoring institutions receive support
for direct costs of operation. In 1959, 182 grants for in-service institutes
were made to 162 different institutions in 40 States, the District of
Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
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It is estimated that about 9,000 secondary school teachers will have
an opportunity for further study under this program during the 1959-
60 school year.
A very limited program of in-service institutes for elementary school
teachers and supervison of mathematics and science will be supported
on an experimental basis during the 1959-60 school year. Eleven
grants were made to 11 different institutions in 10 States and Puerto
Rico. About 350 elementary school teachers and supervisors will have
an opportunity for further study under this program.
Special Projects in Science Education
The Special Projects in Science Education Programs are concerned
principally with the experimental testing and development of promising
new ideas for the improvement of science instruction and with new and
more effective methods for increasing interest in and understanding of
science. From experiments carried out in this manner have evolved such
operational programs as the institutes program and the course content
improvement program.
A total of $8.9 million was obligated in fiscal year 1959 to carry out
these special projects, which fall into three general categories: secondary
school programs, college programs and teacher improvement programs,
and international science education programs.
Secondary School Programs
These projects are planned by universities, colleges, scientific societies,
research organizations, and other groups to enlist interest in and promote
understanding of science, mathematics, and engineering by students in the
secondary schools.
1. Visiting Scientists (Secondary Schools) .-Under this project, grants
are made to professional societies for the administration of programs of
visiting scientists to secondary schools to acquaint students and faculty
with the sciences as vital activities and to provide counsel concerning
careers and education.
Participating scientists receive travel expenses, and may receive a
modest honorarium not exceeding $50 per day of school visitation.
Grants for 1959 were made to the American Chemical Society, Ameri-
can Institute of Biological Sciences, American Institute of Physics, and
the Mathematical Association of America.
2. Traveling High School Science Library Program.-The
primary
objective of this program is to stimulate the interests of high school stu-
dents in science and mathematics through making available to schools,
on a loan basis, a carefully selected library of general-interest books cov-
ering a broad spectrum of science fields. Since 1955 this program has
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been conducted, with suppo; from the Foundation, by the American
Association for the Advancement of Science. During 1958-59375 sets
of 200 books each were circulated to 1,309 high schools and preparatory
schools, including 26 Armed Forces dependents’ schools in foreign
countries.
Eight sets were loaned to State and county library systems for demon-
stration and bookmobile circulation; 153 sets were loaned to NSF-span-
sored institutes and to summer programs for academically talented high
school students for use during the summer of 1959.
An auxiliary service of this program has been the publication from
time to time by AAAS of various kinds of booklists: ( 1) The Traveling
High School Science Library, an annotated bibliography of the 200 titles
currently in use in this library; (2) An Inexpensive Science Library, a list
of paperbound science and mathematics books; and (3) The AAAS
Science Book List, containing over 1,000 annotated titles.
3. Traveling Science Demonstration Lecture Program.-Support
is
provided by NSF for the training and subsequent expenses of selected
teachers in demonstrating scientific principles in the classroom. These
teachers travel over designated areas of the country, visiting secondary
schools upon request.
Participating teachers receive salaries equal to their normal monthly
salary for a 12-month period. In addition, all travel expenses are paid.
The institutions which provide summer training are completely reim-
bursed for this expense and also perform the administrative arrangements
for the academic-year visits.
Support for this program for fiscal years 1956 through 1958 has been
granted to the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies; this activity was
expanded in 1959 to several other centers. Five grants were made to four
institutions: ORINS (two grants), Michigan State University, Okla-
homa State University, and the University of Oregon.
In general, the program provides for 3 months of summer training
for 20 teachers at each of the centers, and full support for these teachers
during the academic year. However, ORINS has trained an additional
20 teachers who were recommended by State education departments
or local schools systems. These teachers are supported during the sum-
mer by the National Science Foundation grant, and during t.he rest of
the year by their own school systems. ORINS, in addition, is running
2 institutes during the academic year, spring and fall, for 20 teachers
each, with the same curriculum as the summer course.
During the 1958-59 academic year, teachers trained at Oak Ridge
made visits to 194 areas and made contacts with 409 high schools, 3,000
teachers, and more than 100,000 students.
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Viiits by traveling lecturers have resulted in many significant changes
in the teaching of science, according to a large number of letters re-
ceived from schools visited. These letters recount in detail the improve-
ments which the schools have been able to make in science demonstra-
tions, laboratory equipment, assignments for students, and project work
after contact with one of the demonstration-lecturers.
4. Science Clubs and Student Projects.-The
primary objective of
thii program is to stimulate an interest in science and in scientific and
engineering careers, particularly among precollege-age students by pro-
viding grants for the support of extracurricular science projects under
the guidance of national youth organizations.
Since 1952, the National Science Foundation has provided partial
support to Science Service, a nonprofit organization which administers
t,he program of Science Clubs of America. Science projects carried out
by the members of these clubs are displayed at science fairs, culminating
in the annual National Science Fair.
A grant was also awarded to 4-H Clubs of America to defray the
costs of a joint conference of 4-H Club leaders, college scientists, and
U.S. Department of Agriculture scientists to explore methods of ex-
panding interest and understanding of science through 4-H Club
activities.
5. Summer Training for Secondary School Students.-This
series of
projects provides grants to colleges, universities, and other nonprofit
research institutions to enable them to offer opportunities to unusually
able secondary school students to study and work during the summer
with experienced scientists and mathematicians at the sponsoring
institutions,
Two general types of training programs were presented. Most com-
mon were institute-type training courses, varying in duration from 2
to 11 weeks, and featuring classroom work, laboratory exercises, and
field trips centered around a specified area of science. In some cases,
however, the training was based upon student participation in actual
research projects of appropriate scope under the guidance of scientists.
A total of 116 grants were made to 109 different institutions in 36
States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. About 6,000 stu-
dents participated in this program during the summer of 1959.
6. State Academies of Science.-State Academies of Science and
similar organizations receive support through this program for projects
to strengthen interest in science, especially among young people. Acad-
emies of Science are uniquely qualified for implementing many such
types of projects because of their active involvement with Junior Acad-
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emies of Science and science fairs, and because of the broad diversifica-
tion of professional talent represented in their memberships.
In 1959, 30 grants were made to 23 different academies in 22 States
and the District of Columbia.
7. Science Career Information.-Preparation
and distribution of
career guidance materials by scientific organizations-material designed
to give authoritative information to students considering professional
careers in various fields of science-are supported by this program.
During fiscal year 1959, grants of this nature were made to the Amer-
ican Institute of Physics, the American Geological Institute, the Amer-
ican Physiological Society, and the Florida State University.
College Programs and leacher Improvement
Programs
These programs are planned by universities, colleges, scientific societies,
research organizations, and other groups to stimulate student interest
in and understanding of science, mathematics, and engineering and
to increase the knowledge and broaden the professional outlook of
science teachers.
1. Visiting Scientists (Colleges ) .-The Foundation provides support
to national professional societies for visits by distinguished scientific lec-
turers to colleges and universities throughout the country. Visiting
scientists lecture, conduct seminars, and meet with students, faculty, and
administrative officers for the purpose of stimulating interest in science
and providing counsel concerning scientific education and careers in
science.
2. Undergraduate Research Participation Program.-This
is a newly
developed program which provides support in the form of grants to col-
leges, universities, and other nonprofit research institutions to foster
undergraduate participation in research. The purposes of the pro-
gram are to interest undergraduates in research by actually sharing in an
ongoing program, and to provide training in the techniques of research.
Participating undergraduates in some cases receive stipends to enable
them to spend time on research training, and the sponsoring institutions
receive support for a share of operating expenses.
A total of 213 grants were made under this program in 1959, with
2,205 undergraduates participating during the summer of 1959.
3. Research Participation for Teacher Training.-This
program pro-
vides support to colleges, universities, and other nonprofit research in-
stitutions for programs offering opportunities to teachers from second-
ary schools and small colleges to participate in scientific research during
the summer months.
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Participating teachers receive stipends comparable to those in summer
institutes, and the sponsoring institutions receive support for a share
of operating expenses.
Fifty-six grants were made to 54 institutions in 29 States and the
District of Columbia; these projects provided research training for ap-
proximately 400 high school teachers and 145 college teachers during
the summer of 1959.
4. Supplementary Training for Science Teachers.-Support in the
form of grants is given colleges, universities, scientific societies, and non-
profit scientific institutions for various activities aimed at improving
the quality of science and mathematics teaching at all educational levels.
Examples are short conferences on the improvement of science teaching;
longer conferences involving specialized instruction in science; and other
special summer training programs for science teachers.
Altogether, 37 grants were made to 25 institutions and 9 societies
for conferences and other teacher training activities located in 24 States;
approximately 3,000 teachers participated in these activities.
5. Special Field Institutes.-During
1959, eight special field institute
grants were made in support of outstanding special programs providing
advanced training in highly specialized subjects for college faculty
members, research workers, and advanced graduate students.
The principal objective of this program is to provide support for
instructional and operating expenses so that educational institutions
can offer important special programs for the advancement of scientific
knowledge.
Six of these institutes provided intensive summer instruction and
seminars lasting from 2 to 12 weeks; the other program involved part-
time participation during the academic year. It is estimated that 127
college professors and 80 graduate students will participate in these
programs, together with over 50 research scientists.
Specialized subjects in which instructional and research programs
were offered include : dynamical astronomy, geophysical fluid dynamics,
marine science, archeology, phytonematology, physiological optics, theo-
retical physics, and computer programming for research scientists and
engineers.
International
Science Education Programs
The activities in International Science Education, begun in fiscal year
1959, have developed under three general program groupings: Curricula
development programs, teacher-training programs, and science student
programs. Limited support was provided in 1959 for a variety of special
pilot projects which may lead to fruitful operational programs.
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1. Curricula Development Program.-In
an effort to improve the
science curricula available in this country, studies of science subject mat-
ter taught in foreign educational systems are being supported. Such
studies are conducted by appropriate professional groups in cooperation
with foreign scientists and educators. Major attention is being given
to preuniversity and undergraduate curricula. Assistance is also avail-
able to interested and qualified American groups to undertake survey
projects under the sponsorship of international regional organizations
and also under the exchange program currently underway with the
U.S.S.R. under the Lacy-Zaroubin agreement.
2. Teacher-Training
Program.-Projects supported under this head-
ing are aimed at improving the quality of our Nation’s teacher-training
programs through cooperative projects with other countries and by
making use of the experience and wisdom accumulated by other educa-
tional systems. Grants can be made to international teacher-training
institutes where the close personal contact that would be brought about
between American secondary and college teachers with their counter-
parts in other nations can lead to greatly enhanced backgrounds and
an invaluable appreciation of mutual problems. The Foundation as-
sures appropriate American participation at such institutes by providing
travel and living expenses for scientists and science teachers selected
from our Nation’s schools and colleges. Visiting foreign staff projects
are also supported whereby distinguished foreign scholars contribute to
Foundation-sponsored summer and academic year institutes programs.
3. Science Student Program.-Foundation support is offered through
these projects for a number of special science education activities aimed
at enabling science students and scientists to engage in international
educational programs with the primary objective of making it possible
for these individuals to keep abreast of the current state of knowledge
and scientific advancement throughout the world. For example, assist-
ance is given to the professional societies and institutions of higher learn-
ing to administer a program of visiting foreign scientists whereby eminent
foreign scientists are invited to spend periods of a few days to a few
weeks in science departments of our colleges and universities with the
objective of augmenting the quality of the research and educational
activities of these institutions. Increasing attention is being given to the
development and support of international field institutes whereby
scholars and students from many nations can gather together for a
few days or weeks to exchange ideas and developments in a special field
of scientific interest.
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Course Content Improvement Program
The purpose of the NSF Course Content Improvement Program is to
encourage and assist first-rank research scientists and teachers in at-
tempts to incorporate modern scientific knowledge and theory into
school curricula. As a result of experience and promising results ob-
tained in previous years, 1959 funds for these programs were substantially
increased to $6.1 million. This permitted expansion into a wide range
of disciplines and inauguration of additional major efforts.
Course Cont,ent Studies and Development
Activities under this heading provide support for first-rate mathe-
maticians, scientists, engineers, teachers at appropriate levels, and as-
sociated experts in education and the communications arts to develop
subject matter content and model instructional materials for courses
in mathematics and science in elementary and secondary schools and
for courses in mathematics, the sciences, and engineering in colleges and
universities. Projects ranging from small-scale experiments to com-
prehensive programs are national in scope and significance.
1. Science and Mathematics in Elementary Schools.-Throughout the
country, elementary schools may soon teach science in every grade, along
with mathematics. The problem is to identify significant content; to
determine at what levels particular concepts can be grasped (taking
variations in student backgrounds and abilities into account) ; and to
develop written materials, apparatus, and other aids for pupils and
teachers. Teachers’ manuals and similar materials are particularly
important, for many elementary school teachers have had little prep-
aration in science. In this field, projects are still exploratory and experi-
mental. Among them are work by mathematicians and teachers at
Stanford University on adding geometry and other topics in grades l-6,
investigation by a group at the University of California at Berkeley on
science for these grades, and development of teaching materials in
geology under the sponsorship of the American Geological Institute and
the University of Minnesota.
2. Mathematics.-The
school Mathematics Study Group was organ-
ized in mid-1958 to carry out an extensive program to improve mathe-
matics teaching in elementary and secondary schools. Many eminent
mathematicians and accomplished teachers are engaged in this project,
which is sponsored by Yale University and directed by Prof. E. G. Begle.
One goal is to provide a sound basis for a solid college course in calculus
and analytical geometry by the end of the 12th grade. Sample texts and
teacher guides for grades 7 and 9-12 will be tried experimentally during
1959-60. Special manuals are being written for in-service teachers and
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soft-cover books on special topics will be prepared for students. A
related University of Minnesota project will test the use of the new
courses in correspondence study by talented students in small schools
lacking advanced work in mat.hematics.
3. Physics.-High school physics is the subject of the pioneering com-
prehensive study. By September 1960, revised instructional materials
will be available through commercial channels for all schools wishing
to adopt the course. The result of 4 years of effort by several score of
the Nation’s top physicists, as well as several hundred teachers who
participated in developing the material and testing preliminary versions,
the course focuses upon the great ideas of physics and provides insights
into the way these ideas have developed. A textbook, laboratory guide,
a special kit of apparatus, films presenting major experiments not readily
conducted in the classroom, examinations, a teachers’ guide, and supple-
mentary books on special topics have been fashioned into a carefully
articulated learning experience. This course represents a new ap
preach to high school physics and, for the first time in many years,
brings the indispensable range and depth of knowledge of a number of
eminent scientists into the development of a secondary school curriculum.
The Physical Science Study Committee, of which Prof. J. R. Zacharias
is chairman, under the sponsorship of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and Educational Services, Inc., has made educational
history with the aid of grants from NSF and from other groups.
4. Chemistry.-Several approaches may prove desirable in high school
chemistry. Conferences in 1957 and 1958 led to a summer writing con-
ference at Reed College in 1959, where research leaders and college and
secondary school teachers prepared a preliminary textbook and demon-
stration and laboratory experiments for a course using chemical bonds as
the central theme. Meanwhile an interim committee of distinguished
chemists, sponsored by Ohio State University, is preparing plans for a
chemistry project comparable to that in physics.
5. Life Sciences.-In the life sciences a large group of eminent bioloi
gists and teachers have initiated the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
(BSCS) under the chairmanship of Dr. H. Bentley Glass of Johns
Hopkins University and the sponsorship of the American Institute of
Biological Sciences. It is the intention of the BSCS, first, to develop a
new high school course in biology, and later to contribute to the improve-
ment of biological instruction at other levels.
Support has also been granted to the National Academy of Sciences for
completing the revision of a sourcebook of laboratory and field studies for
high school biology, the preliminary edition of which has received wide-
spread commendation.
630047-60-8
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6. College Studies .-The Foundation is supporting a variety of course
content and curriculum studies for colleges and universities, including
development of teaching resources in anthropology, review of curricula
in psychology, sourcebooks of experiments for general physiology and
general plant pathology, development of a new freshman chemistry course
at Johns Hopkins University, a research-oriented course at Purdue Uni-
versity for senior aeronautical engineering students, and a conference on
the subject of materials in electrical engineering curricula.
Supplementary
leaching
Aids
Under this program grants are awarded to colleges, universities, and
professional organizations to enable highly competent mathematicians,
scientists, and engineers, aided by teachers, media experts, and techni-
cians, to develop audiovisual aids and new laboratory equipment for
extending the range and to enhance the quality of their instruction.
Support is not provided under this program for projects of merely local
significance, nor for the purchase of equipment to improve facilities in a
single educational institution.
1. FilmJ.To fulfill a long-time need of science teachers, the Founda-
tion has awarded a grant for the collection of reliable information on
content and presentation in existing science films and for study of means
for encouraging the production of needed films and their more effec-
tive use.
One use of films is to stimulate interest in science through brief reports
by active scientists on their work. This is the object of “Horizons of
Science,” a project started with the aid of grants to the Educational
Testing Service. Each month through the school year subscribers will
receive a 20-minute fihn, usually confined to a single report but some-
times giving short treatments of several topics. Film can also give
everyone in a large lecture theater a close view of experiments and
demonstrations. This is a feature of Foundation-supported lectures to
be presented by scientists of the Rockefeller Institute to New York
high school students during short vacations. Fihns can assist teachers
by presenting key experiments difficult or impossible to conduct in school,
plus the stimulation of a “visit” from a distinguished scientist. For its
high school physics course the Physical Science Study Committee is pre-
paring about 60 such f&m, each about 20 minutes in length. A project
in microbiology at the University of California at Davis illustrates an-
other approach, the preparation of a series of very short films to be used
like lantern slides, but capable of showing movement, growth, and other
events which are difficult or impossible to depict in single photographs.
2. Television.-More than 700 school systems and institutions of
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higher education now can use television as an aid in classroom teach-
ing, but its potentialities require much further exploration. Partial
support was provided for one venture sponsored by the Greater Wash-
ington Educational Television Association, in which 16 school systems,
a number of university and Government laboratories, and many scien-
tists pooled their talents to produce a science course for 30,000 5th-
and 6th~graders in nearly 300 schools. In a weekly presentation, scien-
tists from different laboratories discussed major current investigations in
fields studied in the regular lessons; televised in color, these programs
were k&scoped so that they can be used in other areas.
3. Laboratory equipment .-Under an experimental program for stim-
ulating the development of new, inexpensive laboratory equipment, NSF
grants were awarded for 16 projects, including an integrated set of in-
strument “building blocks” for instruments used in analytical chemistry,
a supersonic wind tunnel, and transparent plastic models of vertebrate
embryos. Descriptions of apparatus developed under these grants will
be published and commercial supply houses are likely to consider pro-
duction of many items. A grant was also awarded to the American
Institute of Physics to publish drawings of new apparatus for college
physics.
Scientific Manpower Program
The Scientific Manpower program has as its principal function obtain-
ing and disseminating information concerning the Nation’s scientific
manpower resources. Its functions are carried out through two major
activities: ( 1) The National Register of Scientific and Technical Per-
sonnel, and (2) Scientific Manpower Studies. The cost of the program
in 1959 was $780,000.
The National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel
The National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel is main-
tained to insure that information on the resources of scientific manpower
is available, and that individual scientists and engineers with special-
ized skills can be identified and located as required in the national
interest.
During 1959, the principal activities of the Register have been di-
rected toward ( 1) bringing up to date as promptly as possible the
processing of Register data in order to maximize its usefulness, (2) con-
tinuing the coverage of scientists through the cooperative efforts of the
scientific societies, and (3 ) servicing miscellaneous requests for Register
information.
To expedite the processing of present and future Register data, a
machine processing laboratory was established during 1959 at the Reg-
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ister Records Center operated by North Carolina State College. A pre-
liminary listing contained data collected on some 170,000 scientists
during the period from January 1957 to December 1958.
Preliminary analyses of these data for 1957-58 were started. The
data deal with a wide variety of factors, such as salary, age, level of edu-
cation, field of study, professional specialties, function, type of employer,
and foreign-language facility.
Agreement has been reached with the cooperating scientific societies,
and planning is underway to determine the procedures and schedules
to be used in a 1960 circularization of the scientific community to secure
current information. It is planned that the questionnaire will provide
for updating information on present registrants and complete informa-
tion on new registrants.
Scientific Manpower
Studies
The responsibilities of this activity are to develop data regarding the
supply, demand, training, and characteristics of scientific and technical
personnel, and to provide a central clearinghouse for scientific and tech-
nical manpower information. The Scientific Manpower Studies activity
is the central program in the Federal Government for the provision of
such information.
During fiscal year 1959, the program, by means of funds provided to
other Government agencies and to research organizations, has initiated
a series of projects designed to fill some of the more important gaps in
information. The program has concentrated on four principal areas:
(1) improvement of basic data on scientific and technical personnel;
(2) studies of demand for scientists and engineers; (3) studies in the
selection of scientific and technical vocations; and (4) scientific and
technical manpower in foreign countries.
Among the more important specific projects begun this year were: a
survey of scientific and technical employment in private industry and
State governments; a survey of scientific and technical personnel in col-
leges and universities; a survey of scientists and engineers in Federal Gov-
ernment employment engaged in research (in cooperation with the Civil
Service Commission) ; programs of study of graduate students, by level
and by field; a survey of nonacademic mathematical employment; a
procedural study of the identification of scientific and technical occu-
pations; pilot studies of the demand for scientists and engineers in
several industries; a study of Communist China’s scientific and technical
manpower; and a followup study of college graduates to determine
beginning career patterns.
These projects are in accord with the series of studies recommended
in the Foundation’s report “A Program for National Information on
86

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Scientific and Technical Personnel.” This report was prepared in
answer to a Bureau of the Budget request for such a coordinated pro-
gram. One of the recommendations of this report was the following:
To insure prompt, efficient, and thorough implementation of this
program, an appropriate Federal agency should be given specific
responsibility for coordinating the several projects for analyzing the
data produced, and for assuring that the findings will be made
public.
The National Science Foundation, upon request of the Bureau of the
Budget, has agreed to act as the “focal agency” for this responsibility.
During this fiscal year the following reports were completed :
Foreign Language Knowledge of American Scientists, 1954-55.-
Three out of every four scientists included in the National Register of
Scientific and Technical Personnel reported knowledge of at least one
foreign language. The total who reported some competence in a foreign
language was about 97,000 scientists. About 2 percent of these have
some knowledge of Russian, 1 percent of Chinese or Japanese. Such
knowledge for the most part stems largely from nativity and family
background.
German was the language reported most often and French next, obvi-
ously a reflection of educational requirements for scientific training,
particularly at the graduate level. Figure 2 shows the distribution of
the major groups of languages reported by the scientists.
Chemists, chemical engineers, physicists, and astronomers showed a
greater concentration in the Germanic languages; psychologists and
earth scientists, in French and other Romance languages.
Scientists and Engineers in American Industry, January 1957-A Pre-
liminary Report.–American industry employed 738,000 scientists and
engineers as of January 1957 (approximately two-thirds of the national
total)-528,000 engineers, 152,000 scientists, and 58,000 administrators
of scientific and engineering activities. About one-third of these scien-
tists and engineers were engaged in research and development activities.
The largest occupational group by far were the engineers, number-
ing 528,000. Among the scientists, chemists were the most numerous
group-72,000.
Employment in other scientific fields was as follows:
Life scientists (medical, agricultural, and biological), 16,600; earth sci-
entists (geologists and geophysicists primarily), 14,200; physicists and
mathematicians, 12,100 and 12,400, respectively; and metallurgists,
10,800. (See fig. 3)
Engineers and chemists contributed the largest occupational groups
among the 228,000 industrial scientists and engineers engaged in research
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Tibet0 -Chinese
Balto-Slavic
1.3%
All Other
4% \
\ J
2.4 %
Bolto- Slavic
Tibeto-Chinese.
With mojor
proficiency
3 1,202
30,080
2,929
816
1,928
~gure 2.4orelgn
language knowledge
of American
sdentirtr,
by ma/or
language
9roup,
1954-55.
and development. However, employment in research and development
is of greater relative importance in certain fields, as will be noted from
figure 4. Three-fifths of the physicists were in research and development,
the largest proportion among all the occupational groups.
By major industry group, the aircraft industry employed the greatest
number of research and development scientists, and electrical equipment
the next greatest. The chart below shows t,he number of scientists in all
activities and those in research and development for the major industry
groupa

Page 56
(Thousands)
P
25
50
75
100
125
150
Electrical ‘Equipmen:
I
I
I
eta1 Products and Ordnance
Primary Metal Products
~~~ 4.6 ~,~~,~;~~,,~..:,~~;:::.;~;~.,.~
:i< 2 g* 5
al and Scientific Instruments
Kindred Products
Research and
Other Activities
er Manufacturing Industries
Figure O.–Schntists
and l ngineerr
in research and development
activities
and in all
activities, by industry, January 1957.
89

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,
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.;
ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS
METALLURGISTS
EARTH SCIENTISTS w
PHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
LIFE SCIENTISTS
OTHER SCIENTISTS .Q
TOTAL
Research and Development
m
Other Activities
2l The 8moll proportion
of earth
scientists
employed
in research
and development
Work reflect6
the exclurlon
of field exploration
from research
ond development
under the turvey
detinition.
k/Includes
scientists
ond engineers
employed
as odministrotors.
Flgum 4.4ercentages
of scienlisls
and
engineers
in industry
performing
research
and
developmen),
by occupaConal group, January 1957.
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American Science Manpower-Employment
and Other Characteris-
tics, 29.54-Z.-Of the 116,000 employed scientists listed in the National
Register in 1954-55, the largest group (some 41,000 persons) were em-
ployed in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering. (See
table 2. )
Almost half of the 116,000 scientists were employed in private indus-
try, and nearly one-third by educational institutions. About 44 percent
were engaged in research, development, or field exploration; slightly
less than one-fifth were in management or administration and about the
same proportion in teaching. Almost 8,000 (7 percent) were women.
Table 2 .-Dirlribufion
of all employed scientists,
by field, 1954-S
Employment field
Total-all
fields. …………
Life sciences. ………………..
Agricultural
sciences. ……….
Biological sciences. …………
Medical sciences. ………….
Earth sciences. ……………….
Geology and geophysics. …….
Meteorology.
……………..
Physics and astronomy. ………..
Chemistry and chemical engineering
Chemistry. ……………….
Chemical engineering. ………
Mathematics. ………………..
Engineering, except chemical. ……
Psychology. …………………
Geography ………………….
All other fields l ………………
. .
. .
. .
. . *
. .
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
. .
.
. . .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
-.
AII scientists
Number
Percent
115.775
100.0
24,629
21. 3
8,126
7. 0
15,612
13. 5
891
.8
13,829
12. 0
11,991
10.4
1.838 1
1. 6
11,452
9. 9
40,655
35.0
32,452
28. 0
8,203
7. 0
0
8,670
7. 5
4,611
4. 0
10,163
8. 8
522
.4
1,244
1. 1
m Includes all other scientific and nonscientific specialties.
Source: National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel, 1954-55.
Scientific Manpower-I958.-Papers
presented at the Seventh Con-
ference on Scientific Manpower, held in conjunction with the AAAS
meeting in Washington, D.C., in December 1958, are included in
papers presented at the symposium on “Demographic and Sociological
Aspects of Scientific Manpower.”
In addition, this program provided much information on scientists and
engineers to the Foundation for planning and operating its programs and
to other Government agencies, many private organizations, and the
general public.
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EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION
The scientist’s problems regarding information are: How can the
present volume of research results be published promptly? W.hat is being
published of interest to me, where is it, and how can I get it? The
Office of Science Information Service seeks ways and means to answer
these questions by fostering cooperation and coordination of scientific
information activities of Federal agencies and non-Government organ-
izations.
Scientific information has become a major problem, particularly
since World War II, as a result of rapid scientific progress multiplying
the volume of new scientific information beyond the point where it can
be effectively published or handled through existing methods. Accom-
panying this problem there has been an increased consumption of
fundamental science by technology. The scientist needs his information
faster. Formerly the timelag between development of a fundamental
idea and its utilization by technology was measured in tens of years;
now it may be measured in months and weeks.
During the 1959 fiscal year increased interest in this problem by the
President and Congress culminated in the assignment to the Foundation
of greatly expanded responsibilities for leadership in a national effort
to improve the availability of research information to scientists.
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 defined NSF objectives
for providing or arranging for the provision of a wide range of informa-
tion services leading to a more effective dissemination of scientific infor-
mation and the development of new or improved methods, including
mechanized systems, for making scientific information available.
Under the terms of title IX of the act, the Office of Science Informa-
tion Service (OSIS) was established by the Foundation, replacing the
former Office of Scientific Information. The act also provided for the
establishment of a Science Information Council made up of representa-
tives of private industry, education, professional societies, Government,
and others concerned with information problems. The group advises
and makes recommendations to OSIS.
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OSIS has also established the Federal Advisory Committee on
Scientific Information, composed of senior members of 17 Federal agen-
cies with significant scientific information programs, to coordinate Fed-
eral activities in the field.
Coordination
of Scientific Information
Activities on a National Basis
The Office of Science Information Service has proceeded on the as-
sumption that much is to be gained by close cooperation with, and
support of, existing information services, both public and private, where
they are functioning effectively. This policy is inherent in applicable
language of the National Defense Education Act and was emphasized
strongly in recommendations to the President by his Science Advisory
Committee. Many of the information services rendered by scientific
societies and professional institutions are world famous for their quality.
It is essential that the Federal Government continue to cooperate with
and assist such private groups in maintaining and improving their
specialized services.
Other objectives of OSIS programs are to identify and analyze
strengths and weaknesses of existing information practices; to foster co
operation and coordination among public and private agencies for the
solution of problems in the field; and to encourage and support research
for developing new and improved techniques of information handling.
The four major programs within the Office of Science Information
Service are Documentation Research, Foreign Science Information, Pub-
lications and Information Services, and Unpublished Research Informa-
tion.
In the 1959 fiscal year, 146 grants totaling about $3.8 million were
made; comparable figures for the 1958 fiscal year were 89 grants and
$1.9 million.
Documentation Research
Scientists need new techniques to help them find and digest the ma-
terial they want without time-consuming searches through the literature.
To develop these techniques it is necessary to have a clear understanding
of the actual information requirements of scientists, as well as a precise
knowledge of the ways in which scientists communicate. The Founda-
tion supports research of a fundamental nature that will produce new
knowledge, insights, or techniques for the development of systems to
meet scientists’ information needs.
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hPlanning
‘Oral or written
D Data Treatment
Data from Care Institute of Technology for N.S.F.-1957-1958
Figure 5.40~
industrial chemists spend their working time.
Support of research by the Documentation Research program falls
into three principal areas: studies of present patterns of scientific com-
munication; the organization and searching of scientific information,
including the development of mechanized systems; and mechanical trans-
lation from one natural language to another.
Studies of Scientists’ Information
Requirements
Two studies of the pattern of scientific communication were completed
during f&al year 1959: The Flow of Information Among Scientists-
Problems, Opportunities,
and Research Questions, prepared by the
Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University, and An Oper-
ations Research Study of the Scientific Activity of Chemists, from the
Operations Research Group, Case Institute of Technology. (See fig. 5. )
A subsequent grant has been made to the Bureau of Applied Social
Research at Columbia University for the preparation of a critical review
of all studies to date of scientists’ use of information. The review will
serve to summarize what has been learned so far and to outline questions
and problems needing further study.
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/
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Research on Information
Storage and Retrieval
Several long-range projects in this area are being supported by NSF
grants.
One such grant has been given to the University of Pennsylvania for
an investigation of linguistic transformation for information retrieval, a
continuation of work performed under previous NSF grants. The prom-
ising results of the earlier work have justified the expansion of support.
Among the results thus far achieved is a computable method for recog-
nizing the syntactic structure of English sentences. This has resulted
in an actual program, now working on a Univac computer, for the con-
stituent, or phrase-structure analysis of English sentences.
Short-range storage and retrieval research projects include studies of
the relative efficiency of different systems of classification and indexing,
and a test program to evaluate certain characteristics of the two most
widely used chemical notation systems for structural formulas.
Mechanical
Translation
OSIS is currently supporting research on five mechanical translation
projects, three of which are directed toward procedures for Russian-to-
English translations.
The Harvard Computation Laboratory has in operation a compre-
hensive Russian-to-English automatic dictionary of electronics and math-
ematics. The laboratory is now producing word-for-word translations;
as word order, multiple meaning, and other problems are solved, the
quality of translating will improve. The dictionary is used as a research
tool in a continuing program to achieve fully automatic translation.
At Georgetown University research continues on the mechanical trans-
lation of Russian chemical and French physics texts. Several different
techniques have been developed, including provision for selecting proper
meanings of words and for their rearrangement into English word order.
These techniques are now being tested on general-purpose computers.
A group at the University of California, through linguistic analyses of
an extensive body of Russian text in the field of biochemistry, is develop-
ing a dictionary and translation rules.
Detailed studies of the way in which the German and English lan-
guages function are being made at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. Such knowledge is believed to be necessary to the achievement
of high-quality mechanical translation.
The Cambridge Language Research Unit in England is studying
the semantic organization of languages to develop procedures for the
mechanical handling of variations of meaning aa well 85 form. These
procedures are being tested first on punched cards.
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Research Information
Center and Advisory Service on
Information
Processing
Research and development in scientific documentation is growing
at a rapid pace. Projects supported by Foundation grants represent
only a portion of the active work in the field. In order to foster com-
munication among research workers, the Documentation Research Pro-
gram collects and publishes information about these activities. Brief
descriptive accounts of work in progress appear in the semiannual NSF
report, Current Research and Development in Scientific Information.
To extend this clearinghouse service for information in the field, a
Research Information Center and Advisory Service on Information
Processing is being supported at the National Bureau of Standards, with
a portion of the financial support for the center contributed by the Coun-
cil on Library Resources. The center staff has undertaken a continuing
study of available reports and publications about information processing
and will prepare reviews of progress in particular research areas. The
center will provide Federal agencies and cooperating private organiza-
tions with technical advice on problems encountered in research projects
on information processing.
Research Conferences
Support and staff assistance was given to the International Con-
ference on Scientific Information, held in Washington, D.C., in Novem-
ber 1958. At the conference, progress in research on scientific infonna-
tion problems and the need for additional work were discussed. The
conference proceedings will be published by the National Academy
of Sciences.
Foreign Science Information
The Foreign Science Information program is concerned with the
broadest aspects of the international exchange of scientific information.
Thii involves attention to U.S. collections of original foreign research
publications; support of translation and domestic dissemination of for-
eign scientific information; studies of the scientific information systems
and the information resources of other countries; and interchange of
scientific information between the United States and other countries.
Although during 1959 procurement and translation of scientific infor-
mation of Soviet origin continued to be of primary importance, greater
attention was given to increasing our knowledge of scientific achievement
in other countries, including Japan, mainland China, Poland, and
Yugoslavia.
96
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/
i
Translation
of Russian Scientifk Documents
OSIS, in cooperation with the Office of Naval Research and the
National Bureau of Standards, supported the efforts of 28 professional
societies and academic institutions in cover-to-cover translations of 35
Russian scientific and technical journals and 18 books and monographs,
aa well as special articles and collections of scientific papers. This sup-
port permitted the translation of approximately 70,000 pages of foreign
scientific information, a significant increase over the 1958 support pro-
gram when the 29 journals, 10 books and monographs, and other
materials translated totaled 37,000 pages.
Translation
Centers
Within the Federal Government, interagency cooperation stimulated
by the Foundation led to the establishment of a Foreign Technical Infor-
mation Center in the Office of Technical Services of the Department of
Commerce. This center collects scientific and technical translations
prepared by Government agencies, announces their availability, and
provides copies to the public on request.
In the interest of further reinforcing a cooperative national attack
on the translation problem, the Foreign Science Information program
continued its support of the Special Libraries Association Translation
Center at the John Crerar Library in Chicago. SLA collects transla-
tions from non-Government sources and forwards them to the Depart-
ment of Commerce for announcement simultaneously with Government-
prepared translations.
In January 1959 the Office of Technical Services began issuance of
a semimonthly publication entitled Technical Translations, w,hich pro-
vides a central source of information in the United States on translated
technical literature available to science and industry. It lists and ab-
stracts translations available from the Office of Technical Services, The
Special Libraries Association Translation Center, cooperating foreign
governments, educational institutions, and private sources.
Special Information
Resources
Support was also given to the Midwest Interlibrary Center (MILC)
for continuation of its program of building a comprehensive collection
: I
* of foreign chemical and biological serial publications to serve as a
national as well as a regional resource.
Studies and Surveys
Information studies on the organization and characteristics of scien-
I
i
tific information and information systems in all nations which conduct
research are underway. These include studies of Poland by the New
97

Page 65
York Public Library and of Japan and Indonesia by the Pacific Science
Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Similar studies are being
developed for the U.S.S.R., mainland China, Czechoslovakia, Yugo-
slavia, Hungary, Korea, and other countries.
Oversoa Activities
OSIS has played an important role in improving coordination with
international scientific information activities. Help is being given to *
the European Productivity Agency in a study of the feasibility of estab- I
lishing a Pan-European Translation Center to collect and organize
translations of Eastern European and Oriental scientific literature from
Western Europe.
I
The Foundation, as directed by the Bureau of the Budget and the 1
President, is responsible for the coordination and administration of
budget estimates and programs for scientific information activities un-
dertaken overseas by Federal agencies using foreign currencies accruing
under Public Law 480, 836 Congress. A total of $1.2 million was
appropriated by Congress for this purpose. Although certain adminis-
trative difficulties exist, the Public Law 480 program offers an oppor- !
tunity for a notable increase in the quantity of foreign publications and
translations available in the United States. A contract for such a
program in Israel became effective April 24, 1959, and about 10,000
pages of foreign scientific and technical materials are currently in
process of translation there.
In May 1959, OSIS representatives visited Poland to negotiate a
contract which provides for the translation and publication of an aver-
age of 500 copies of 19,000 pages of Polish scientific and technical
information. It is expected that a contract will be negotiated with
Yugoslavia. Feasibility surveys will be conducted in India.
Publications and Information Services
I
The Publications and Information Services program supports a i
variety of scientific publications; data and reference centers; and experi-
ments, studies, surveys, and conferences. This support is to aid the
dissemination of scientific information by helping to maintain, improve,
I
1
I
and expand present means of publication, and by helping to establish *
and maintain information centers that provide scientists with specialized
reference service.
Support of Scientific Publications
During 1959, grants were made in support of primary research jour-
nals to launch new publications and to aid existing periodicals. The
former included two experimental publications: Wildlife
Disease, the
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$4
Two significant grants in this area were made during 1959. The first
was for continued support to the Office of Critical Tables of the National
Academy of Sciences. This office is an information and coordinating
center for projects engaged in developing critical physical data of all
kinds. The second grant of this kind was to the Biosciences Information
Exchange administered by the Smithsonian Institution and jointly sup-
ported by a number of Government agencies. The exchange functions
a~ a repository of knowledge on “who is working on what” in the bi-
he
1
530047–80–Q
99
first research journal to be issued solely in microform (Microcard in this
case) ; and Physical Review Letters, an experiment in rapid low-cost pub-
lication of short, up-to-the-minute articles on physics research. Typical
of other new periodicals supported is the Journal of Geophysical Re-
search; here the NSF grant assures publication for 2 years during which
time it is believed the journal can become self-supporting, Representa-
tive of the existing primary journals receiving support in 1959 is Cenet-
its; in this case the grant is for the publication of an accumulated backlog
of papers as a separate volume. Other journals have received tem-
porary support to enable them to publish cumulative indexes or to insure
publication while regular income is being adjusted to meet sudden in-
creases in costs or the need for immediate expansion of coverage.
Grants also were made in support of abstracting and indexing services.
Typical is the grant made to Biological Abstracts to enable it to improve
the adequacy of its coverage. Other reasons for such grants include
supporting a new service until it can build up its regular income, permit-
ting reorganization of a service to improve its effectiveness, and covering
a financial crisis caused by a sudden rise in costs or the need to offer
a temporary specialized service. Consultation with the National Federa-
tion of Science Abstracting and Indexing Services (formed in January
1958 with NSF support) aids in achieving coordination and consistency
of overall pattern. The policy of temporary support only is applied here
also; however, the periods of subsidy are somewhat longer than in the
case of primary journals because costs are higher and possible sources
of income are fewer.
Recognizing that good critical reviews constitute one of the most im-
portant-and most neglected-forms of scientific publications, the Publi-
cations and Information Services program made its first extensive grant
in thii area in December 1958. Under this grant four series of review
papers are being prepared in physics, varying from comprehensive tech-
nical reviews of major area of the field to short, semitechnical synopses
of limited subject scope.
Support of Information
Services

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ological sciences and offers reference service on its holdings to al
participating groups.
Studies and Surveys
Studies are being made to provide yardstick information for use n
evaluation of proposals and to direct the way to improved publication
and other dissemination methods. One is developing a breakdown o
scientific reading habits of chemists and physicists in terms of the kind
of material covered and specific journals read. Other investigation
underway concern the membership, dues, and publication structure c
professional scientific societies; the editorial subscription and productio:
practices of scientific journals; publication climate in industries engage1
in basic research; an analysis by the American Institute of Physics of tb
overall publication picture in physics; and a somewhat preliminary stud
in the biological field being conducted by the American Institute of Bit
logical Sciences.
.e i
Unpublished Research Information
The principal concern of the other programs of OSIS is with the dir
semination of domestic and foreign scientific information generate
through conventional publications channels. The Unpublished Researc
Information (URI) program seeks to increase the accessibility of UI.
classified, unpublished research information. The major sources of sue:
information are research reports and memoranda of Government an’
private institutions, theses, dissertations and papers resulting from scier
tific conferences. This material frequently contains significant scientifi
information not otherwise found in published sources.
The development of the program and its accomplishments to da1
have been governed by two general precepts: attain systematic di!
semination of unclassified research information not generated throug
conventional publications channels; and encourage the flow of such ir
formation to these channels.
Clearinghouse activities involving direct literature search service lz
OSIS were transferred to the Office of Technical Services, Department (
Commerce, and to the Science and Technology Division of the Library (
Congress.
Preliminary investigation was made of the feasibility of establishing
center, similar to the federally supported Bio-Sciences Information E:
change, for handling mathematical, physical, and engineering inform;
tion generated by Government or federally sponsored projects. A sin&
study was made of the problem of handling materials information an
data. Increasing attention will be given to these kinds of studies as tl
program develops.
100
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Inventory of Government
Scientific Reporting
In 1959 the Foundation, through the URI Program, accelerated its
efforts to survey information activities of Federal agencies operating
major scientific information programs. Bulletin No. 1 of the series,
Scientific Information
Activities of Federal Agencies, covering the
information activities of the Department of Agriculture, was published
in November 1958. Bulletin No. 2, released in June 1959, reported
such activities for the Office of Naval Research.
Unpublished
Research Reports
In 1959 continued support was given by a grant to the Office of
Technical Services (OTS) of the Department of Commerce to increase
the availability of unclassified Government research reports to the
Nation’s scientists and engineers.
A grant was made to the Library of Congress for continued support
to enable it to expand further its reference collection of Government
research reports and to provide reference and bibliographic services to
insure accessibility of this information to the scientific community.
Other Activities
The OSIS responsibility for conducting the U.S. scientific exhibits
program at the Brussels World’s Fair was concluded in 1959. During
the year a number of these exhibits were installed at the Chicago
Museum of Science and Industry.
Other exhibits were prepared for use at meetings of scientific organ-
izations where the problems of scientific information dissemination and
programs for improvement in the field were topics of discussion.
To provide an effective means for the exchange of information among
groups working in the scientific information field, the Office of Science
Information Service began publication of a bimonthly news bulletin,
Science Information
News,, in February 1959. The bulletin reports
national and international developments and, it is hoped, will promote
cooperation and coordination among scientific information services,
Initial reaction indicates this bulletin fills a widespread need.
Providing U.S. Scientists With Soviet Scientific Information,
pub-
lished during the fiscal year, describes the overall U.S. effort to make
available Russian scientific publications, translations, abstracts, indexes,
and bibliographies. It also contains a reference list of 76 Russian
journals currently being translated into English.
Current Research and Development in Scientific Documentation, No.
4, describes projects here and abroad in information requirements and
uses, research on information storage and retrieval, mechanical tram-
lation, and in equipment development.
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SURVEYS OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
EFFORT
A major Foundation responsibility is the measurement and appraisal
of the total research and development effort. Each sector of the
economy, pursuing its own interests, contributes its part to the whole
effort. As a Federal agency, the Foundation is in a position to view the
condition of the Nation with regard to its entire research and develop-
ment activity. This view aids in the formulation of national science
policy and the establishment of internal policies for the Foundation’s
programs in research and education.
The NSF Act of 1950 provided for such a mission in directing it to
develop recommendations regarding national science policies. The
President’s Executive Order of March 1954 specifically directed it “to
make comprehensive studies and recommendations regarding the
Nation’s scientific research and its resources for scientific activities” and
to appraise “the impact of research upon industrial development and
upon the general welfare.”
Importance
of Research and Development
in the Economy
Scientific research and development, recognized for its part in achiev-
ing military objectives, is now being appraised for its significance as a
national activity in our economic system. This recognition was more
forcefully realized with the Foundation’s estimate for 1957 of $10
billion for research and development in the country as a whole with the
employment of more than 300,000 scientists and engineers.
Referred to as the “industry of discovery,” research and development
activity in the United States has in recent years expanded more rapidly
than many other industries. Expenditures for this purpose rose from
more than $2 billion 1 in 1947 to $5.2 billion 2 in 1953 and to the
previously mentioned $10 billion in 195 7.
That this upward trend will persist is indicated by the fact that the
1957-58 recession failed to halt its growth. Perhaps contributing to
the continued increase is a new public awareness, created by the Soviet
1 Department of Defense.
Office of the Secretary of Defense (R&D), The Growth
of Scientific Research and Development.
Washington 25, DC., 1953, p. 10.
’ National
Science Foundation.
Reviews of Data on Research B Development,
No, 1, “Expenditures
for Research and Development
in the United States, 1953.”
Washington 25, DC., 1956.
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satellite launchings, of the need for continuing research and development.
Many have realized that research and development contributes sig-
nificantly to our domestic policy of maintaining a healthy economy. But
until the past few years the intrinsic effects of research and develop-
ment on the growth of the economy and on maintaining its level had
only been vaguely explored. The theory that research and development
acts in this way on the economy has been expounded by the late Prof.
Sumner Slichter of Harvard University. He has stated that techno-
logical research leads to increased demand for goods, which in turn raises
production and thereby acts as a source of greater income. Thus,
research has a dynamic as well as a stabilizing effect. Research and
development acts in this manner primarily because we have a free
enterprise system. The competition by industry to bring about the
innovations and new products as a result of research is responsible for
these overall effects on the economy.
Thus, research and development also influences the competition among
nations, extending to all levels, the military and civilian, i.e., competi-
tion with regard to weapons systems as well as to standards of living.
Dr. Waterman, at the hearings before the Joint Economic Committee
of the Congress in February 1959, testified: “The real point is that we
are competing with the Soviet Union for the future . . . the economic
implications of research and development are of a long-range nature.
What we do now in planning our research and development effort, in
giving it adequate support, may determine not only our own future but
the future of the world as well.”
The importance of research and development requires that ways be
found to measure this effort. To do this it is necessary to obtain detailed
data, which in turn will permit closer analysis of the effects of research
and development.
Survey Program and Related Analytical
Studies of the Foundation
Two measurements of the research and development effort are ( 1)
dollars expended and (2) manpower employed. In the late 1930’s
and during the 1940’s, statistics were primarily broad estimates of total
volume of expenditures and manpower. Some of these estimates were
prepared by the National Research Project of the Work Projects Ad-
ministration, the National Resources Planning Board, the Office of
Scientific Research and Development, the President’s Scientific Research
Board, and the Research and Development Board of the Department of
Defense.
The Foundation’s Office of Special Studies, benefiting from this
earlier work, approached the problem of measurement on a systematic
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and comprehensive basis. The economy was divided into four “sec-
tars”-Federal Government, industry, colleges and universities, and other
nonprofit institutions.
Data are compiled in terms of both sources of funds and pet-forma
of research and development for all four sectors. This permits analysis
of intersectoral relations and the construction of a transfer table showing
the flow of funds for support of work by the sectors to others for the
conduct of research, as well as for the basic research performed and/or
supported by each sector.’
Surveys are conducted in each sector, largely by means of question-
naires either directly by the Foundation’s staff or by contractual agree-
ment with another Federal agency or outside institution. For the
Federal sector and for most groups in the nonprofit sector, the surveys
aimed for complete coverage; sampling was used for industrial firms
and smaller philanthropic foundations.
The first comprehensive round of surveys covering the year 1953-54
was completed, with full reports issued covering the individual surveys
in each sector. The data have been combined into an overall estimate
for the country. This necessarily experimental series indicated defi-
ciencies to be met, or at least acknowledged, for some of these are in-
herent in the subject matter, and laid the foundation for a permanent
survey program.
The purposes served by the current program of statistical surveys are
twofold, one being to supply a sufficient amount of information for
analysis, and the other to formulate a statistical time series summarizing
annual fluctuations in research and development activity. The demands
on the Foundation to supply data on research and development activi-
ties have been great, and as a result continual updating of information
is planned. A detailed survey of each sector will be conducted once
every 4 or 5 years. In the intervening years only summary data will be
collected, largely for the purpose of developing the time series. How-
ever, owing to the current interest in research and development data,
this plan for the present has been modified to make the summary surveys
somewhat more detailed in nature, but eventually it is hoped to confine
them to total figures. In this way, adequate data on research and
development will be available for each sector as well as for the country
as a whole.
‘National
Science Foundation.
Reviews of Data on Research 8, D#vrtogmsnt,
No. 1. “Expenditurea
for Research and Development
in the United States, 1953.”
Washington 25, D.C., 1956; Reviews of Data on Research d Development,
No. 5.
“Fund8 for Basic Research in the United States, 1953.” Washington 25, D.C., 1957.
104

Page 72
Emerging from the data collection have come the tools for shaping
analytical studies. Like the factfinding studies, they are the means for
achieving the objectives and they continue to build the basis for guidance
in policy matten and “appraising the impact of research on the general
welfare.”
Total National Activity
Based on its sectoral surveys, the Foundation estimates that research
and development activity in 1956 totaled about $8.5 billion. In terms
of “sources of funds” and “performers” of research and development, in-
dustry performed 76 percent of the total dollar volume and supplied 38
percent of thii national total from its own funds. The Federal Govern-
ment was the major source of funds, supplying 59 percent in addition
to the 38 percent from industry, and the remainder came from colleges
and universities and other nonprofit organizations. In interpreting these
data, it should be borne in mind that the bulk of this amount represents
development customarily performed by industry and largely financed by
the Federal Government to meet its military objectives.
Knowledge regarding basic research, a foremost concern of the Foun-
dation, is also gained from these surveys. Such information is useful to
the internal formulation of policy. Here again the overall figures for
1956 show the Federal Government to be the major source of funds; the
colleges and universities maintain their traditional position as primary
performers of basic research.
From these surveys ensued some of the studies and actions dealing with
the impact on the economy of research and development activity as out-
lined below.
(a) As a start in the direction of exploring this activity, a conference
was held dealing with “Research and Development and Its Impact on
the Economy” in the spring of 1958 which resulted in publication of the
Proceedings.’
(b) On the same subject was the Director’s presentation, quoted pre-
viously, before the Joint Economic Committee. An abridged vetsion of
his remarks was published in the NSF series, Reviews of Data on Research
d Development, No. 13, “Research and Development and Economic
Growth,” in which Dr. Waterman stated :
More and more emphasis is being given to research and develop
ment in the analysis of long-term growth as compared to the some-
what more traditional factors, particularly capital expenditures and
‘National
Science Foundation, Procredings of a Conference on Research and De-
trclopment and Its Impact on the Economy.
Washington 25, DC.: Supt. of Docu-
ments, U.S. Government Printing Oftice, 1958.
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population. The 1959 Economic Report of the President has called
attention to the extremely important role that research and develop-
ment contributes to the growth of the economy.
(c) Current Projects on Economic and Other Impacts of Scientific
Research and Development, 2959.–The survey of projects pertaining to
analysis of the impact of research and development to date has been
limited to colleges and universities. Over 100 projects were reported
by 54 of the 140 responding institutions. Under the title shown above,
publication of an inventory of these projects is planned for the fall of 1959.
This survey may be extended to research institutes and privately endowed
foundations.
(d) Bibliography on the Economic and Social Implications of ‘Sci-
entific Research and Development.-A
selected annotated bibliography
has been prepared. It is intended to provide references representative
of typical approaches to the study of research and development, and to
serve as a guide for further investigation.
(e) Conference on Economic Analysis of Research and Develop-
merit.-In
the spring of 1959 a 2-day symposium was held, convoking
analysts from industrial firms and universities to present informal papers
on their inquiries into the research process. The symposium was mutu-
ally fruitful to participants in providing a channel for communications
and constructive critical discussion of the work in their fields.
Federal Government
During the fiscal year 1959 the Foundation published Federal Funds
for Science, VZZ-The
Federal Research and Development Budget,
Fiscal Years 1957,1958, and 1959 based on data reported to the Founda-
tion in the spring of 1958 by t,he Federal agencies participating in the
Government’s research and development programs. The President sub-
sequently submitted supplemental requests for additional appropriations
which had not been included in the budget for both fiscal years 1958 and
1959. Congress, recognizing the needs of science, in several cases in-
creased funds for scientific research and development by a substantial
amount over the original budget estimates.
Reviews of Data on Research & Development, No. 12, “Recent
Legislative and Executive Actions on the Federal Budget for Scientific
Research and Development, Fiscal Years 1958 and 1959,” presented
preliminary information on the extent of the major changes in the
estimated obligations which were published in the seventh issue of
Federal Funds for Science.
During the year, a survey was conducted of obligations and ex-
penditures for scientific research and development for fiscal years 1958,
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1959, and 1960. Among the changes introduced in reporting the
Survey, the most important in terms of the overall totals, relates to the
expanded definition of development w.hich now corresponds to the
definition used in current surveys of the other sectors. Table 3 sum-
marizes estimated obligations for fiscal year 1959.
With respect to the manpower studies of the Federal sector, the data
on research and development personnel were collected as a part of a
larger survey by the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
Table 3 .-Estlmafod
Federal Obligations
for Conduct of Research and Dwolopment,
Flscd
Year 1959
[Millions of dollars]
Agency
Total, all agencies. ……………………………….
$7,233
Department of Agriculture.
……………………………..
119
Department of Commerce. ………………………………
28
Department of Defense b …………………………………
5,581
Department of the Army. ……………………………
(992)
Department of the Navy. ……………………………
(1,249)
Department of the Air Force. …………………………
(2,738)
Advanced Research Projects Agency. ………………….
(427)
Departmentwide
funds ………………………………
(175)
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ………………
244
National Institutes of Health. …………………………
(212)
Department of the Interior. ……………………………..
62
Atomic Energy Commission. …………………………….
773
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
……………..
303
National Science Foundation.
……………………………
57
Allothcragencies
……………………………………..
65
8 These estimates were published in Federal Funds for Science, VIII-The
Federal Re-
search and Dcvclopmcnt Budget, Fiscal Tears 1958, 1959, and 7950.
b Data reflect revised appropriation
structure for research and development.
Totals
include pay and allowances of military personnel in research and development, scpa-
rately identified procurement funds in support of R, D, T, & E, as well as the Re-
search, Development, Test, and Evaluation appropriations.
NOTE: Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of rounding.
Estimated
obligations,
?W
.
Industry
Two previous surveys of research and development performance by
private firms were sponsored by the National Science Foundation and
were conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of
107

Page 75
Labor. The first survey covered the years 1953-54 ’ and the second
1956.6 Pmhmimuy figures on costs and manpower were released on
the 1956 survey. A detailed report containing final revised figures is in
the process of publication.
The 1957 survey was conducted by the Bureau of the Census in order
that research and development data could be related to other economic
statistics collected by that agency. A detailed survey covering the year
1958 is currently underway, being conducted also by the Bureau of the
CeIlSUS.
Preliminary returns from the 1957 survey were released in the fall
of 1959 in Reviews of Dota on Research B Development, No. 14,
“Funds for Research and Development Performance in American Indus-
try, 1957.” For overall comparisons the Foundation has estimated the
funds for total industrial research and development performance for the
5 years 1953-57 as presented in figure 6.
Colleges and Universities
The final report of a Foundation survey of colleges and universities
was issued in December 1958, Scientific Research and Development in
Colleges and Universities-Expenditures
and Manpower, 1953-54.
A
survey for the year 1957-58 is now underway, this one being conducted
for the Foundation by the U.S. Office of Education. The rapid growth
of Federal financial support of scientific research and development at
institutions of higher education during the postwar period has raised
a number of issues of national education and science policy. Among
these issues are:
(a) Relative responsibilities of Federal and non-Federal sources
for financing academic research.
(6) Relationship of federally sponsored research to the issue
of Federal aid to higher education.
(c) The compatibility of institutional objectives to those of
sponsoring Federal agencies.
(d) The effects of Federal sponsorship of research upon the
balance of institutional activities as between research and instruc-
tion. (For example, is Federal support of research tending to drive
“Science and Engineering
in American Industry.
Final Report on a 1953-54
Survey. Prepared for the National Science Foundation by the U.S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Washington 25, D.C.: Supt. of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1956.
’ National Science Foundation.
Reviews of Data on Research d Development,
No. 10, “Research and Development
Costs in American Industry, 1956.” Washing-
ton 2.5, D.C., 1958.
108

Page 76
Billions
of dollars
$9
I
I
I
I
‘3
1954 1955
1956 1957
%~m
L–Funds
for research and development
perfomred
by private
industrial
firms,
1953-57
NOTE: Data for each year are l xprorsod in terms of current dollars.
(a) Funds shown here are for private industrial firms, i.e., principally
manufacturing
and
other Industrial tlrms which account for more than 90 percent of the total amount for the
“Industry
sector” as a whole.
Also Included in the sector as defined by NSF (but not
represented
In the chart) are independent
commercial
laboratories,
trade associations,
and
meanh
centers operated by private Industrial organizations
under contract with the Federal
Government.
faculty out of teaching and into research because of better oppor-
tunities for promotion?)
(G) The effects of Federal sponsorship upon the balance among
the institutional research activities, e.g., as between natural and
social sciences and between the sciences and the humanities.
(f ) The &e&s of Federal contracts for applied research and
development upon basic research.
(g) Use of the research center as an institutional device for
attaining research objectives of Federal agencies.
(h) Responsibilities of Federal agencies for paying indirect costs
of sponsored research.
An assessment of these problems requires facts on the total re-
search and development effort carried on at institutions of higher
education, the proportion federally financed, the trends in Federal
support by agencies, field of science, character of work, etc. (See
figures7and8.)
109

Page 77
!Sepamtely
Budgeted
Full-time EquiwAents
Rb 0 Expendltwes
Engaged in R 8 D
Petwnl DbtrlMbn
Percent cxstrlbutbe
6D 3D 40 30 20
IO
0
IO 20 30 40 30
I
I
Physical Sdmces.. . . .
Psychology. . . . . . . . . .
Sadal sciences . . .
Ufe Sciences . . . .
BiOlogl00l (Including
Ndlcal preclinlcol)
. . .
abtkal . . . . . . . . . . .
…………..
…………..
Figun 7.—Jeparately
budgeted
research and development
in colleges and universities
proper, 1953-54.
Comparison
of expenditures
and faculty, by tlefd of science.
NOTE Excludes data on agricultuml
sciences.
la) Sepamtely
budgeted research and development
includes both research and develop
ment sponsored by outside agencies and that supported by “earmarked”
university funds.
tb) Due to varying response factors, the institutlonal
covemge of expenditure
and man-
power data Is not completely comparable.
Within the scope of the 190 large colleges and
unlvenltles
surveyed, ,173 schools reported on expenditures
and 180 repotted on manpower.
The chati Is based on the schools reporting on both items.
110

Page 78
Millions
Of
Dollars
500
250
200
IW
100
50
0
-Foundations
&
-.
-Defense
——___
-,.
$19
,.i,
-:
539
.. – Heollh, Education
and Welfare
.:. ,…
::,,
-Atomic
Energy
:…”
Commision
-m
Fedeml agency
&$q
other sources
Figure 8 .–Total
cost of research and development
at colleges and universities,
by sowce
of support, fiscal year 1954.’
’ Includes colleges and universities
proper, agricultural
experiment
staHons, and Federal
research cenkrs.
’ Includes gifts and grants, ond other private sources.
’ Includes Staclte and local government funds.
’ Includes health agencies.
111

Page 79
Data obtained from the Foundation’s 1953-54 survey of research
and development at colleges and univexsities have contributed sig-
nificantly to policy recommendations developed by the Foundation with
respect to a number of the above problems.’
Other Nonprofit Institutions
Repeating the 1953-54 surveys of private foundations, research insti-
tutes, health agencies, and other nonprofit organizations, the Foundation
has utilized the services of the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, to collect data on expenditures and personnel for the
year 1957. Privately endowed foundations reported $71.5 million for
support of research and development in that year, 67 percent of which
was characterized as basic research. Health agencies reported $23
million, 47 percent of which was basic research, mostly in the life sciences.
’ See the following reports: National Science Foundation.
Govrmmsnt-Univrrsity
Ralationships in Fudcrally Sponsorad Scientific Russarch and DUVUlOfimUnk
Wash-
ing 25, D.C.: Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office,
1958; and Fudsral Financial Support of Physical Facilitirs and Major Equipmant
for
thr Conduct of Scientific Russarch.
Washington 25, D.C. : National Science Founda-
tion, 1957.
I 112
I

Page 80
SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS
International Geophysical Year
Geneml
The International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-58, the worldwide
cooperative program in geophysical research conducted by 66 nations,
came to a close on December 3 1, 1958. By this date there had success-
fully been completed 18 months of scientific observations begun on July 1,
1957.
The planning and execution of the U.S. portion of the IGY program
were conducted by the U.S. National Committee for the IGY, National
Academy of Sciences. Funding and coordination of Government inter-
ests were provided by the National Science Foundation.
Summary of Preliminary
Results of the IGY
The data for the IGY are so extensive that it will take years to extract
all the valuable material contained therein. Nevertheless, a large
number of significant preliminary results have already been recorded.
A comprehensive report on these results for the entire l&month
period of the IGY was presented to the Subcommittee on Independent
Offices of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives,
in February 1959, by members of the U.S. National Committee for the
IGY and its technical panels, and is available in published form. The
preliminary results covered in detail in the report can only briefly be
mentioned here.
As a part of the IGY, the sun was subjected to the most comprehensive
and detailed examination ever given by man to any extraterrestrial object.
Solar manifestations were looked at both to discover more about the
processes that occur in the sun, and to try to correlate these manisfesta-
tions with the complex phenomena that occur in the earth’s atmosphere.
113

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Every variety of geophysical instrument, including rockets and satel-
lites, was used in the total IGY examinations. It is probably safe to say
that every available vehicle was used by the farflung parties of scientists
in the accomplishment of their missions.
Of the many measurements and accomplishments of the series of IGY
satellites, two outstanding ones may be mentioned. With respect to
instrumentation carried aloft by satellites, the identification of the Van
Allen Radiation Belt is probably the most significant. Man has now
established the fact that the earth is surrounded by two great dough-
nut-shaped zones of trapped charged particles at distances in the plane
of the geomagnetic equator of about 6004,000 and 8,000-l 2,000 miles
altitude. Further, it has been established that for a given altitude this
radiation is most intense in low geomagnetic latitudes and is much re-
duced at polar latitudes, and that it has a distribution relationship to
the earth’s magnetic field. A second significant preliminary finding
resulted from careful ground-based observations of the Vanguard I
satellite orbit and complicated calculations based upon the orbital data.
An important contribution to geodesy was made by these calculations,
as they permitted a refinement of our knowledge of the distribution of
mass of the earth, indicating a slight excess in mass in the Southern
Hemisphere over that in the Northern Hemisphere.
By means of rockets and balloons, important deviations between the
latitude energy distribution of cosmic rays impinging upon the earth
and the structure of the earth’s magnetic field have been detected.
Similarly, terrestrial magnetic field measurements tend to verify the
existence of a strong electricai current in the high atmosphere above
the earth’s magnetic equator. Still further, the earth’s magnetic field has
been demonstrated to maintain a detectable influence far into space.
This came as a consequence of studies of ionospheric phenomena called
whistlers, which originate from atmospheric electrical disturbances
that propagate along paths guided by the force of the earth’s magnetic
field.
The diurnal and seasonal variations of the ionosphere also demon-
strate the close relations among solar variations and terrestrial responses.
Careful and prolonged measurements of the aurora enable still closer
identification of solar radiation and solar particle output and the re-
sultant upper atmospheric consequences. An additional significant find-
ing derived from the examination of these solar-terrestrial phenomena
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is that the sun’s corona appears to be of great extent and that the earth
itself may be immersed in this extremely tenuous material.
The sun’s effects are not, however, confined to the earths atmosphere.
The liquid and solid portions of the earth respond to the energy in which
they are bathed, and react between themselves and with the atmosphere
as a gigantic heat engine with two fluids. And even the solid earth
responds to the sun in the measurable form of the earth tides. The
earths intake and output of energy, primarily from the sun, are remark-
ably stable. The energy exchanges between the atmosphere and the
oceans are on a vast scale. The circulation of winds and waters effects
the exchanges necessary for this stability.
The understanding of meteorological phenomena will have been ad-
vanced immeasurably when the IGY data have been completely ana-
lyzed. In the oceans-our last terrestrial frontier-new currents and
deep countercurrents have been identified and measured. The exchanges
of gases, such as carbon dioxide, between the waters and the atmosphere
have been measured all over the world, and as a result it has been estab-
lished that the distribution of carbon dioxide gas is remarkably constant
throughout the world. All the world’s important glaciers and ice de-
posits have been measured and probed to complete the data that man
must have in order to promote climatological research on its necessary
long-time scale, and future similar measurements from time to time will
yield epochal knowledge.
The first serious large-scale scientific examinations of the Antarctic
form a noteworthy part of the IGY program. Tremendous depths of
ice, up to 14,000 feet, were probed by seismic means and give for the first
time an indication of the actual size of the Antarctic ice deposit. First
mappings of the structure under the icecap were made. Many upper
atmospheric measurements were completed and preliminarily substanti-
ate the belief that cosmic rays are distributed in the Southern Hemisphere
in the same fashion as they have been measured in the Northern Hemi-
sphere. The simultaneity and general frequency of auroral occurrences
in both hemispheres were established.
Meteorology particularly benefited from the investigations in the Ant-
arctic where, until the IGY, meteorological knowledge was scant and
upper air observations almost nonexistent. The Antarctic is the only
place on earth where the ocean waters perform earth circuits without
continental or other interruptions and where a high, frigid continent
underlies a very large-scale circulation system.
680047-60-10
115

Page 83
The earth’s crust and interior were also subjected to careful scrutiny.
Seismic stethoscopes measured natural and manmade disturbances of
vibrations in the earth, both on land and at sea, and measured strains and
deformations in the earth’s crust. Mountain roots were in some cases
found to penetrate through the earth’s crust deeply into the mantle.
Measurements of the value of gravity are tying in hitherto incomplete
gravity networks and revealing mass distribution and maas anomalies.
The data now gathering in IGY World Data Centers will spur man’s
imagination concerning his entire world as never before. The continuing
use of this data, and its vast research value, far outweighs the cost of the
IGY effort and should greatly accelerate the pace of research in relevant
areas.
World Data Centers
In accordance with agreements reached by the nations participating in
the IGY, the data resulting from observations are being collected in three
World Data Centers: World Data Center A, located in the United
States; World Data Center B, established in the U.S.S.R.; and World
Data Center C, maintained by eight nations of Western Europe, Japan,
and Australia. If received by only one of the World Data Centers, data
are immediately copied and sent to the other two centers so that three
complete sets of IGY data will be in existence for the use of interested
scientists in all parts of the world. Any individual or institution may
obtain copies of the data from a center at a nominal sum to cover repro-
duction costs.
A third 6-monthly catalog of data was prepared by all IGY World
Data Centers in January 1959. A fourth catalog will be prepared by
September 1959. For each discipline, one of the Data Centers (A, B,
or C) has the responsibility of preparing a final catalog of IGY data
held by the IGY World Data Centers. The schedule for production of
these catalogs varies considerably from discipline to discipline; it is ex-
petted that catalogs for most disciplines will be prepared by the end
of 1960.
World Data Center A has been organized into 11 archives for different
IGY disciplines located in various parts of the United States, with a
Central Coordination Office in Washington, D.C., directed by the Na-
tional Academy of Sciences. The locations of the 11 archives follow:
1. IGY World Data Center A : Airglow and Ionosphere; Central
Radio Propagation Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards,
Boulder, Colo.
2. IGY World Data Center A: Aurora (Instrumental) ; Geo-
physical Institute, University of Alaska, College, Alaska.
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Page 84
3. IGY World Data Center A : Aurora (Visual) ; Rockefeller
Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
4. IGY World Data Center A: Cosmic Rays; School of Physics,
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 14, Minn.
5. IGY World Data Center A: Geomagnetism, Gravity, and
Seismology; Geophysics Division, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey,
Washington 25, D.C.
6. IGY World Data Center A: Glaciology; American Geo-
graphical Society, Broadway at 156th Street, New York 32, N.Y.
7. IGY World Data Center A: Longitude and Latitude; U.S.
Naval Observatory, Washington 25, D.C.
8. IGY World Data Center A: Meteorology and Nuclear Radia-
tion; National Weather Records Center, Asheville, N.C.
9. IGY World Data Center A: Oceanography; Department of
Oceanography and Meteorology, Agricultural & Mechanical Col-
lege of Texas, College Station, Tex.
10. IGY World Data Center A: Rockets and Satellites; National
Academy of Sciences, 2 101 Constitution Avenue NW., Washing-
ton 25, D.C.
11. IGY World Data Center A: Solar Activity; High Altitude
Observatory, Boulder, Colo.
Communications regarding data interchange matters in general and
World Data Center A as a whole should be addressed to: Director,
World Data Center A, National Academy of Sciences, 2 101 Constitu-
tion Avenue NW., Washington 25, D.C. Inquiries and communications
concerning data in specific disciplines should be addressed to the ap
propriate archive listed above.
Publications based on IGY observational data are being issued under
a disciplinary report series by the appropriate archives and a general
report series by the Coordination Office.
Moscow Meeting of the CSAGl
The fifth reunion of the Comid Sptcial de l’Annee Gtophysique
Internationale (CSAGI) , the international planning body for the IGY,
was held in Moscow in July and August 1958. The four principal
matters taken up by the CSAGI Moscow Assembly were ( 1) a review
of the accomplishments of the first two-thirds of the IGY; (2) the ques-
tion of the future of international cooperation in geophysics after the
end of the IGY; (3) the problem of the collection, storage, and catalog-
ing of data at the World Data Centers; and (4) the question of publica-
tion of IGY data and results.
A review of the accomplishments of the IGY was achieved largely
through symposia in the various disciplines. Results reported by the
117

Page 85
United States and the U.S.S.R. on their work in rockets and satellites
were of particular interest.
International
Geophysical
Cooperation-1959
The question of the future of international cooperation in geophysics
after the end of the IGY was given emphasis at the Moscow Assembly,
where a proposal was introduced by the Soviet delegation to extend the
entire IGY program for an additional year. The final decision on this
proposal reached by the assembly was to recommend the continuation
of geophysical research only in certain fields under a program to be
known as “International Geophysical Cooperation, 1959” (IGC-1959).
Included among the recommendations for continued cooperative work
were a world magnetic survey, a limited solar activities program, Ant-
arctic research, oceanographic studies, and rocket and satellite observa-
tions. The CSAGI recommendation for International Geophysical Co-
operation-1959 was subsequently adopted by the International Coun-
cil of Scientific Unions, the parent body of the CSAGI. Participation
in the program is on a voluntary basis at national levels.
The National Science Foundation has accepted in principle the pro-
posed program for continuation of international participation in geo-
physical sciences in 1959. Research proposals supported by the Founda-
tion’s Division of Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
represent US. contributions to the continuation of international partici-
pation in geophysical sciences in 195 9.
Anlnals of the IGY
At the Moscow Assembly of the CSAGI it was agreed that the Annals
of the Znternational Geophysical Year, published for the CSAGI by the
Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, should serve as a complete record of the
IGY. All important IGY results and data will be published in the
Annals.
Such publication will not, however, preclude publication
elsewhere.
The following volumes of the Annals are in published form:
Volume I, The First and Second International Polar Years, the
Inception and Development of the IGY.
Volume IIA, The International Geophysical Year Meetings (first
four CSAGI Assemblies), 1959.
Volume III, The Ionosphere, 1957.
Volume IV, IGY Instruction Manuals (nuclear radiation, aurora
and airglow, longitudes and latitudes, geomagnetism, seismology,
cosmic radiation), 1957.
Volume V, IGY Instruction Manual (ozone, aurora and airglow,
Antarctic radio communications), 1957.
118

Page 86
Volume VI, Manual on Rockets and Satellites, 1958.
Volume VII, IGY Instructional Manual (world days and commu-
nications, CSAGI Guide to World Data Centers, Arctic com-
munications, geographical distribution of IGY stations), 1959.
Additional volumes of the Annals are in process of publication.
U.S. Antarctic Research Program
General
The scientific research conducted in the Antarctic during the IGY
developed results that indicated the need for a continuing program. To
plan for continuing Antarctic research at the international level, the
Special Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) was established by
the International Council of Scientific Unions. This Committee, ini-
tially composed of representatives of the 12 nations who conducted pro-
grams in the Antarctic as part of the IGY, makes broad international
program recommendations on the scientific work needed in the region.
All of the 12 nations represented have agreed to continue scientific pro-
grams in Antarctica.
Following a U.S. Government policy decision to continue operations
in Antarctica beyond the winter of 1958-59 on a basis consistent with the
U.S. national interest, the National Science Foundation was designated
the agency of Government to coordinate U.S. scientific programs in the
region, and the Department of Defense was named the agency to provide
logistic support to such programs.
A subsequent policy decision reduced the six-station network in the
Antarctic maintained by the United States during the IGY to a four-
station network: the Pole Station, the Byrd Station, the Naval Air Fa-
cility at McMurdo, and the Hallett Station. In addition to operating
these four stations, the United States agreed to supply scientific personnel
and equipment under cooperative arrangements with other countries at
the following stations: the Scott Base (operated by New Zealand during
the IGY and continued in the post-IGY period) ; the Wilkes Station
(formerly maintained by the United States, now by Australia) ; and the
Ellsworth Station (during the IGY operated by the United States, now
maintained by Argentina). The U.S. IGY Little America Station was
shut down at the close of the IGY.
Operation of the U.S. Antarctic Research Program
To undertake the detailed problems of coordinating a program of
Antarctic research, the National Science Foundation established during
1958 the Antarctic Research Program under the Office of Special Inter-
national Programs. Research proposals for Antarctic research are re-
119

Page 87
ceived from governmental agencies, universities, and other institutions;
am evaluated through suitable review; selected to assure a balanced
program; and supported to the extent of available funds and logistic
support. Logistic planning and requirements are handled in coopera-
tion with the U.S. Navy. (A description of research currently conducted
as part of this program can be found under “Support of Basic Research
in the Sciences,” p. 46.)
The Antarctic Research Program must in one sense be a “package”
program, because it crosses the lines of many scientific disciplines and
because it involves a geographic area. However, at the same time the
determination of program grants must be made on the basis of scientific
competence as for any Foundation grant. The area is exceedingly
remote and those who receive grants for research must have access to
Antarctica through the facilities of the Naval Support Force. Thus, be-
fore processing a grant for research in the Antarctic, the National
Science Foundation must make available more than funds; it must
also assure the grantee that the travel accommodations to and from
Antarctica, the living space for the research worker, and the scientific
facilities necessary for this work have been developed and are on hand.
All of these items contribute to the total cost of the research; the funds
involved in an individual grant itself do not therefore indicate the full
cost of the particular research project.
Considerable liaison work with the Naval Support Force and with
the Department of State are necessary to arrange for the logistic support
that each grantee must have. In addition to this, many grantees must
work in cooperation with the scientists of other nations, and the necessary
liaison work to arrange for such cooperative operations must also be
supplied where necessary through arrangements by the Foundation’s
staff.
Two groups serve in an advisory capacity to the Foundation’s
Antarctic Research Program. Broad program objectives for this coun-
try, recognizing the recommendations of the SCAR, are considered by
the Committee on Polar Research of the National Academy of Sci-
ences and proposed to the Foundation as representing the opinion of the
scientific community on the needs in certain areas of Antarctic research.
The overall program suggestions made by the Academy’s Committee
serve as guidelines in the formulation of the Foundation’s Antarctic
Research Program.
To assure full cooperation and coordination of the intragovemxnent
operations, the Interdepartmental Committee on Antarctic Research,
composed of representatives of Government agencies with interests in the
Antarctic, has been set up by the Foundation to examine proposals
120

Page 88
and progwms
of the represented agencies and the broad program sug-
gested Iby the Committee on Polar Research. The first U.S. team of
scientists to carry out research in the Antarctic following the IGY left
the United States in the fall of 1958 and will return January-Febru-
ary 1960 (Team I).
A second group of scientists (Team II) will leave the United States
in the fall of 1959; the summer contingent will return January-Febru-
ary 1960 and the winter contingent in January-February 1961.
The following table shows the number of U.S. scientists in Team I
and the number planned for Team II at each station and aboard ships
in Antarctic waters :
Team I
Team II
Station
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
McMurdo
(U.S.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
3
16
6
Byrd (U.S.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
13
4
12
Pole (U.S.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
8
0
9
HalIett (U.S. joint with New Zealand).
0
1
0
5
Wilkes (Australia).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
3
0
4
Ellsworth (Argentina).
, . . . , . . . . . .
0
1
0
5
Scott (New Zealand). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
3
3
3
shipboard……………………
2
0
6
0
8
32
29
44
Cooperation With International Science Activities of Other
Government Agencies
International
Cooperation Administmtion
Under the terms of an interagency service agreement between the
Foundation and the International Cooperation Administration, certain
scientific and technical services have been supplied to that agency for
activities in different countries. These services have included during the
past year representation by more than a dozen qualified scientists at
committee meetings and symposia of t.he Organization for European
Economic Cooperation and the furnishing of a science adviser to the
Government of the Philippines in Manila.
Department of State
The Foundation has cooperated with the Department of State in
establishing liaison for the exchange of information between the staff
of the Foundation and the science officers of the Department of State
who have assumed their overseas posts.
121

Source:

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1959/annualreports/ar_1959_sec4.pdf

+++

Related:

Weather Warfare – Page 104 – Google Books Result

Jerry E. Smith – 2006 – ‎History

Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison of Texas introduced the Weather ModificationChair of the Committee on Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research,  …

+++

Related:

[PDF]353 Public Law 85-510

http://www.gpo.gov/…/STATUTE&#8230;

United States Government Publishing Office

section 3 (a), the Foundation shall consult with meteorologists and scientists in private life and with agencies of Government interested in, or affected by, experimental research in the field of weather control. “(b) Research programs to carry out  …

[PDF]Weather and Climate Modification – NSF

https://www.nsf.gov/nsb/…/nsb1265.pdf

National Science Foundation

social, and political aspects of the field and make … SPECIAL COMMISSION ONWEATHER MODIFICATION� iv … Accomplishments of the National ScienceFoundation. Program . ….. consult with meteorologists and scientists in private lifeand with agencies of Government interestedcloud physics research,experimental.

+++

Related:

weather mod
“any activity performed w the intention of producing ARTIFICIAL changes in the composition, behavior, or dynamics of the atmosphere”
http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title15-section330&num=0&edition=prelim

+++

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12 thoughts on “Program Activities OF the National Science Foundation – 1959

  1. 1959
    The weather modification program was established under Public Law 85-5 10
    https://chemtrailsaroundtheworld.wordpress.com/2015/11/15/program-activities-of-the-national-science-foundation-1959/
    Scribd

    #GOP #chemTrails

    +++

    1959
    The weather modification pgm established under Public Law 85-5 10
    1
    https://chemtrailsaroundtheworld.wordpress.com/2015/11/15/program-activities-of-the-national-science-foundation-1959/
    2

    #GOP #chemTrails

    Like

  2. The weather modification program is handled as part of the Atmospheric
    Sciences research support program. It was established under
    Public Law 85-5 10, which directs the Foundation to “. . . . initiate
    and support a program of study, research, and evaluation in the field
    of weather modification.” A full range of laboratory and field experimental
    work is already being supported, together with the study and
    improvement of the physical and statistical evaluation methods employed
    in determining the results of any seeding operation. The program
    has the objective of studying more intensively than has been attempted
    before the scientific basis of weather modification.

    Like

  3. drought that held sway in many parts of the country, the claims of some of the rainmakers & the criticism from portions of the scientific community
    1
    http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/1965/nsb1265.pdf
    2
    http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-72/pdf/STATUTE-72-Pg353.pdf
    #GOP #chemTrails

    +++

    #drought that held sway in many parts
    claims of some of the #rainmakers
    1
    http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/publications/1965/nsb1265.pdf
    2
    http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-72/pdf/STATUTE-72-Pg353.pdf
    #GOP #chemTrails

    Like

  4. National Weather Modification Policy Act of 1976, 15 U.S.C. § 330 note, Pub. L. 94-490, §§ 1-6

    The purpose of this Act is to develop a comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and a national program of weather modification research and development that will, among other things, conduct research into those scientific areas considered most likely to lead to practical techniques for drought prevention or alleviation and other forms of deliberate weather modification; make weather modification research findings available to interested parties; to assess the economic, social, environmental, and legal impact of an operational weather modification program; develop both national and international mechanisms designed to minimize conflicts which may arise with respect to the peaceful uses of weather modification;

    and integrate the results of existing experience and studies in weather modification activities into model codes and agreements for regulation of domestic and international weather modification activities. Pub. L. 94-490, section 2(b).

    The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct a comprehensive investigation and study of the state of scientific knowledge concerning weather modification, which shall include a review and analysis of research needs in weather modification to establish areas in which more research could be expected to yield the greatest return in terms of practical weather modification technology. It shall also include, among other things, an assessment of the legal, social, and ecological implications of expanded and effective research and operational weather modification projects; as well as a review of the international importance and implications of weather modification activities by the United States, and an analysis of the necessity and feasibility of negotiating an international agreement concerning the peaceful uses of weather modification. Pub. L. 94-490, section 4(2), (4), (7), (10).

    Source:
    http://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/research_authorities.pdf

    Like

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